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Thuja plicata - Western Red-cedar, Canoe cedar, Giant arbor-vitae, Giant cedar, Pacific red-cedar, Shinglewood

Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Despite extensive logging, the extensive range and abundance of Thuja plicata makes it ineligible for any threatened category and it is therefore assessed as Least Concern. The two more or less disjunct areas in which this species occurs: Pacific coastal mountains and Rocky Mountains, experience a different climate and therefore sustain different forest types. The mostly much wetter (winter rainfall, up to 6,600 mm p.a.) and milder coastal ranges support the tallest conifer forests in the world, with Sequoia sempervirens in the southern part exceeding 110 m and with Abies grandis to 80 m, Abies procera 85 m, Picea sitchensis 87 m, Pinus lambertiana 75 m, Pseudotsuga menziesii 100 m, and Tsuga heterophylla to 80 m tall. Many of these trees also exceed any of their congeners elsewhere in overall size (Van Pelt 2001). Thuja plicata, with max. 75 m, is one of the longest-lived in these forests, with veteran trees often in excess of 1,000 years. Other conifers in these coastal forests are Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (extreme southern part of range), Xanthocyparis nootkatensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, Tsuga mertensiana, and Taxus brevifolia in the understorey. Common angiosperm trees are Acer macrophyllum, Alnus rubra along rivers, and Populus trichocarpa; in the shrub layer are especially abundant Vaccinium spp., Rubus spectabilis and Ribes bracteosum. Deep layers of mosses and liverworts cover the forest floor and lower sections of tree trunks as well as fallen logs, on which latter most conifers find the only substrate to germinate. In the interior Abies grandis, Abies lasiocarpa, Larix occidentalis, Picea engelmannii, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, and Taxus brevifolia are the most commonly associated conifers. Here annual precipitation does not exceed 1,200 mm and winters are much colder than along the coast. This species is common especially in the coastal sections of its extensive range and somewhat less so in the interior parts. (Selective) logging of mature trees and 'old growth' forest in which this species is a codominant continues in many areas where the forest is not on protected land. In situations where secondary forest growth is managed to favour other species (e.g. Pseudotsuga menziesii), this would lead to a decrease of occupancy of Thuja plicata. Plantation forestry focusing on this species should eventually reduce the level of exploitation of natural stands, in particular in 'old growth' forest with its high ecological value. At present this species is not considered to be in danger of extinction. The wood of this species provided the main building material for the Amerindian tribes along the Pacific coast, who developed a technique to split large planks from the lower boles of big trees without destroying the trees themselves. Nowadays, its main use is for making shingles used in roofing residential buildings; as in most Cupressaceae, the wood is decay-resistant and easy to work. For large construction purposes it is less suitable as it tends to split, but it can be used for a variety of smaller utilities from garden sheds, glass houses, and furniture to tools. Western Red-cedar has been used in forestry plantations in some countries in NW Europe on a rather limited scale; it requires high rainfall and performs best in the wetter parts of the British Isles. Thuja plicata has been widely planted as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens. It is also suitable for hedges as it grows back quickly from clipping. Fewer cultivars are known from this species than from Thuja occidentalis, but it is nevertheless of substantial importance in the horticultural trade.
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Juniperus squamata - Nepalese juniper, Scaly juniper, Flaky juniper, Padma chunder (Hindi), Gao shan bai (Chinese)

Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Juniperus squamata is a widespread and locally common species; in some areas subpopulations are likely to be increasing. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern. Occuring from subalpine coniferous forest and mixed woodland with Abies spp., Picea spp., Larix spp. and Juniperus semiglobosa, Juniperus recurva, Juniperus saltuaria, Betula spp., and Quercus spp., up to subalpine Rhododendron thickets and Juniper thickets or alpine dwarf shrub or grass/forb communities. In thickets and alpine scrub it is commonly associated with Juniperus indica, Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii, Berberis, Caragana (in NE of range), Cotoneaster, Polygonum bistorta, Rhododendron, Rosa, Sorbus, Spiraea etc. The altitudinal range is 1,340-4,850 m a.s.l. It is found on various rock types, from calcareous to siliceous, and often predominant on moraines, scree slopes or rocky ridges, but also on gravelly flood plains. The climate is high montane to alpine with strong monsoon influence, which however diminishes towards the NE of its range. Overgrazing of subalpine meadows could threaten this species locally or regionally, but given its very wide distribution this is unlikely to have much impact on the species. Juniperus squamata is widely cultivated as a garden ornamental and several shrubby and prostrate forms are propagated as cultivars. Forms with glaucous leaves are much in demand and accordingly a constant stream of new cultivars with this trait runs into the horticultural market.
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Agathis lanceolata - Serpentine forest kauri, Koghis kauri, Kaori de forét (French)

Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable Agathis lanceolata has a history of exploitation for its timber and has undergone a decline in its extent of occurrence (EOO), area of occupancy (AOO) and quality of habitat. Its EOO is estimated to be 5,378 km², based on herbarium specimens and field observations. Overexploitation has led to a significant decline in numbers of individuals, habitat degradation and habitat conversion, extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. The subpopulations are severely fragmented, as more than half the individuals are in small and isolated patches. The estimated total population is less than 10,000 mature trees. Each of the main subpopulations contains much less than 1,000 mature individuals. Taken together, these data indicate an assessment of Vulnerable. Agathis lanceolata is concentrated in the southern massif of New Caledonia with outlying localities in Province Nord on the Boulinda and Mé Maoya massifs and the Col Maré. Occurs at altitudes ranging from 200 to 1,100 m. The total population is estimated to be less than 10,000 mature individuals with no subpopulation with more than 1,000 individuals. A large emergent tree restricted to dense humid rainforest on ultramafic substrates. The species has a history of overexploitation. Although plantations have been established, illegal logging is still a problem. Habitat fragmentation due to the effects of repeated fires and land clearance is another problem with most subpopulations restricted to fragments of primary forest, generally in sheltered valleys.
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Saxegothaea conspicua - Prince Albert’s yew, Saxegothaea, Maniú , Mañío, Mañío Hembra , Mañío Macho, Mañío de Hojas Cortas (Spanish)

Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened Currently Saxegothaea conspicua has a relatively continuous distribution, particularly in the Andes. However, in Chile logging and fire wood extraction still occurs within its habitat and if this continues then there is the possibility of the population becoming severely fragmented, particularly in the Coastal Cordillera where most forest destruction occurs. However, presently the loss of habitat has not been sufficient for it to qualify for listing under criterion B and the population of mature individuals is too large to qualify for criteria C or D. There is a possibility that it could be listed as Vulnerable (VU) under criteria A2, A3 or A4, but more information concerning rates of deforestation and past population sizes is required. Argentinian populations are reported to be too small to affect the global listing. Presently it should be listed as Near Threatened (NT) but this species requires continued monitoring, especially in terms of selective felling and range reduction due to fire or changes in land use. Future reassessments could find that it would qualify for VU under criterion B or even criterion A if information on reduction rates are obtained. It is an extremely shade tolerant species and capable of root-suckering.  It is most abundant in the wetter Valdivian rainforest where it is commonly associated with Laureliopsis philippiana, Nothofagus dombeyi and Nothofagus nervosa. In the coastal Cordillera it occurs at low altitudes on poorly-drained marine and fluvio-glacial deposits or between 400-950 m above sea-level on shallow soils developed from micaschists (Lusk 1996). In these sites it is commonly associated with Drimys winteri, Ammomyrtus luma, Dasyphyllum diacanthoides, Eucryphia cordifolia and Weinmannia trichosperma (Lusk 1996). Where ranges overlap it is commonly associated with Podocarpus nubigenus. The ever increasing conversion of native forest in the Coastal Cordillera to commercial plantations of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus, means that much of the habitat for this species has been lost and continues to disappear. Logging in the Andes outside of National Parks still occurs. Logging is often for firewood or is selective in order to extract young straight stemmed trees before they become contorted and multi-stemmed (Hechenleitner et al. 2005). In Argentina there is no commercial use of its wood, although it may be used locally. In Chile it is highly prized for its uniform, yellow-rose colour, durable wood which is easily worked and is used for making fine furniture. It is also used for construction. It is afforded good protection throughout its range in National Parks, particularly in the large tracts of protected areas that are contiguous between Chile and Argentina in the Andes, where there are some important old-growth forests. There is less protection in the northern part of its distribution, particularly in the Coastal Cordillera of Chile. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/saxegothaea/saxegothaea-conspicua
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Pinus wallichiana - Himalayan white pine, Bhutan pine, Blue pine, Himalayan pine, Kail (Hindi, Kashmiri), Tongshi (Bhutanese), Qiao Song (Chinese)

Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Widespread and common, not threatened and hence listed as Least Concern. Pinus wallichiana grows in the Himalayas in the valleys and foothills, to a maximum altitude of 2,700 m, but in Bhutan it reaches 3,400 m a.s.l. Sometimes it forms pure stands or forests, in other places it appears as an important forest component mixed with broad-leaved trees, e.g. species of the genera Quercus, Acer and Ilex. In the western Himalayas, where conditions are drier, Pinus wallichiana forms mixed forests with Cedrus deodara. Other conifers with which it may be associated are Pinus roxburghii, Abies spectabilis, or Abies densa and Tsuga dumosa in the wetter eastern part of its range. Potentially, over-exploitation could negatively impact the population, but the species is too common and wide-spread for this to have serious consequences other than locally. Himalayan white pine or Bhutan pine is an important timber tree in many parts of the Himalaya. It is of similar timber properties and quality to Pinus strobus and Pinus monticola in North America, with tall, straight trees producing straight grained wood of good strength. It is used for construction, carpentry and joinery, wall panelling, veneers, furniture, fences and gates, crates and boxes, and railway sleepers after treatment with preservatives. In India (Himachal Pradesh) resin tapping is an important use to obtain naval stores. A sweet liquid known as honey dew is secreted by aphids from the leaves and collected by local people of the mountain forests for consumption. Bhutan pine was introduced to England in 1823 and, unlike several other species of Pinus subsection Strobi, it turned out to be relatively immune to infections with blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; Basidiomycota) as well as to atmospheric pollution. In forestry it is also used in plantations and several hybrids with related species have been established with timber production in mind (e.g. the cross between Pinus strobus and Pinus wallichiana = Pinus x schwerinii Fitschen). Bhutan pine is a widely used amenity tree and a number of cultivars have been selected and are in the trade. This species occurs in several protected areas. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/pinus/pinus-wallichiana
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Picea orientalis - Caucasian spruce, Oriental spruce, Aghmosavluri Nadzvi (Georgian), Jel Kavkasskaja, Jel Vostochnaya (Russian), Doğu Ladini (Turkish)

Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Picea orientalis is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category but population monitoring as well as control over logging are necessary conservation actions to avoid future decline. The species makes up coniferous and mixed forests in upper montane zone covering large areas within the distribution range. This shade-enduring and moisture-loving tree usually grows on brown forest soils but can often be found  also on stony and rocky slopes from the Black Sea coast to the Central Greater Caucasus and the eastern ends of the Trialeti ridge on the Lesser Caucasus. It forms pure stands or is associated with Abies nordmanniana, Pinus kochiana (Pinus sylvestris var. hamata), Fagus orientalis. Oriental spruce dominated forest may have various types of undergrowth, of which the Colchic type made up of evergreen shrubs and dwarf trees such as Laurocerasus officinalis, Ilex colchica, Buxus colchica, Taxus baccata, Rhododendron spp. is worth special mentioning. Selective logging, agricultural land development and insect damage are the major threats to the species although these are not thought to be causing an overall decline. Oriental spruce is an important timber tree in the Caucasus, where it forms extensive pure stands, many of which are managed for forestry. It has also been introduced as a forestry plantation tree in countries in the eastern Mediterranean. The wood of this species is of good quality, comparable to that of Norway spruce, and is put to similar uses. Among these are construction, flooring, carpentry, furniture making, and parts of musical instruments. In horticulture, this spruce is sometimes grown as a Christmas tree, but more commonly as an amenity tree for parks and large gardens in many European countries and in the USA. A good number of cultivars is in the trade, among which are dwarf forms, forms with yellowish flushing leaves and those with 'mounding' habits. Picea orientalis occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, e.g. Meryemana Forest (Pontic Mts., Turkey),  Kintrishi, Ritsa, Algeti Protected Areas (Georgia), Teberda Nature Reserve (Russian Caucasus). Population monitoring; species based actions such as selective logging and trade management are needed. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/picea/picea-orientalis
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Larix griffithii - Sikkim larch, Himalayan larch, Binya (Nepalese), Xizang hongshan (Chinese)

Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Whilst logging of Larix griffithii occurs in some valleys, there are no reports that this has been or is causing a decline in the global population, which is widespread and numerous in large parts of the Himalayas. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern. The typical variety is also Least Concern and not assessed separately. Two varieties are recognized. The typical variety is relatively widespread in the eastern Himalayas while Larix griffithii var. speciosa (W.C.Cheng & Y.W.Law) Farjon is currently only known from NW Yunnan and SE Xizang. The typical variety is not threatened whereas var. speciosa has been separately assessed as Near Threatened. Larix kongboensis R.R.Mill, described from the Yarlung Zangbo river drainage in Xizang, is treated as a synonym of Larix griffithii var. griffithii. It occurs in pure forests up to the tree line, at lower elevations it is often mixed with Abies spectabilis, Abies densa, Pinus wallichiana, Picea spinulosa, Tsuga dumosa and Juniperus sp. Betula utilis and various large species of Rhododendron are the most common broad leaved trees associated with it. Logging would be of potential threat to this species if and where it was unsustainable, i.e. not allowing regeneration to productive age of the same species. Sikkim larch is of minor economic importance as a timber tree due to its occurrence in remote valleys and on high slopes. It was introduced to Britain in the 19th century but was not very successful and remains restricted to a few arboreta and other large gardens with collections of exotic trees, usually in countries or regions with a mild climate and rare occasions of frost. The main problem seems to be early flushing of leaves in regions with erratic warm spells in winter, which then get damaged by 'late' frosts. It would thus be expected to perform better in countries with a more continental, but not extreme winter cold climate. This species is present in some protected areas throughout its range. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/larix/larix-griffithii
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Agathis borneensis - Borneo kauri, Malayan kauri, Western dammar, Dammar minyak (Malay)

Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered Agathis borneensis has in the past been confused with Agathis dammara, and the 1998 assessment of Agathis dammara treated Agathis borneensis as a synonym. Agathis endertii was also previously considered a good species (Farjon 1998, 2001) and hence assessed separately for the IUCN Red List, however, Farjon (2010) now considers it to be conspecific with Agathis borneensis. Deforestation and targeted logging have been ongoing for many years, have accelerated in recent decades, and are continuing to deplete the global population of this species, especially in Borneo and Sumatera which form the major part of its range. An estimate of 50% reduction between 1950 and 2025 is probably on the conservative side. This puts the species in the category Endangered. Agathis borneensis occurs in lowland to upland tropical rainforest as scattered emergent trees and in low lying kerangas forest on sandy or sometimes peaty soils, where it can form extensive pure stands. This species has been very heavily over-exploited in many areas and as a result its total area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to have at least been reduced by half and this is still ongoing. Stands covering an estimated total of 30,000 ha discovered in Kalimantan in the 1930s had effectively been logged out by the mid 1960s. Most stands outside the few well protected nature reserves (mostly situated in the Malay Peninsula and in Sabah) have been seriously depleted and it is doubted that regeneration will be sufficient to restore the losses. Habitat degradation has caused further reductions in recruitment of young trees to replace felled ones. This species is one of the most valuable and sought after timber trees in Southeast Asia and it is traded on the international market. This species (and Agathis dammara) are planted on a fairly large scale in forestry plantations in Jawa, but only locally on a small scale within its native range. This species is present in several protected areas, but these only cover a tiny proportion of the global population and are skewed geographically to parts of Malaysia; in Indonesia there are few reserves relevant to this species. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/agathis/agathis-borneensis
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