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De of het termijn
Waar de Engelsen perfect tevreden zijn met slechts één bepaald lidwoord (the), moeten de Nederlanders kiezen tussen twee lidwoorden: de en het. Erg onhandig, inderdaad. Vroeger hadden de Nederlanders zelfs drie bepaalde lidwoorden, net als in het Duits. Het kan dus altijd nog erger zijn. Wat heeft het dan voor zin om twee verschillende lidwoorden te gebruiken? Eerlijk gezegd heeft het geen zin. Er is ook geen duidelijke regel om te bepalen welke zelfstandige naamwoorden het als lidwoord krijgen en welke de. Helaas moeten niet-moedertaalsprekers het gewoon accepteren en de de en het zelfstandig naamwoorden uit hun hoofd leren. Aan de andere kant hebben we alleen te maken met kleine, eenduidige woorden. Als je ze een beetje onbegrijpelijk mompelt, zal niemand je fouten opmerken. Weet jij eigenlijk of het de of het termijn is? De-woorden: Enkelvoud: de man Meervoud: de mannen Het-woorden: Enkelvoud: het huis Meervoud: de huizen Vroeger had elk geslacht zijn eigen lidwoord: mannelijk, vrouwelijk en onzijdig. In het moderne Nederlands is het onderscheid tussen vrouwelijke en mannelijke lidwoorden verdwenen: Je gebruikt bij allebei de. Door de emancipatie van vrouwelijke en mannelijke lidwoorden heeft het geen zin meer om over het geslacht van de lidwoorden te praten. In plaats daarvan hebben we het gewoon over de en het zelfstandig naamwoord, waarbij het natuurlijk het artikel van een onzijdig zelfstandig naamwoord is. Zoals u ziet, gebruiken we bij het meervoud altijd 'de'.
Best Way to Learn Chinese PDF Online
Ten essential highlights of Learn Chinese PDF 1. Gives guidance in spoken and composed Mandarin; no earlier foundation accepted. 2. Fills in as an extensive asset for the establishment levels of Chinese language study3. Incorporates test plans for each of the 200 hours of class study. 4. Presents rich substance (in light of the creator's own experience learning Chinese) that is introduced gradually and in detail, is cautiously sequenced and works toward discoursed or stories that reiterate significant substance. 5. Incorporates an assortment of activities and PDF materials for self-study. The friend site,, gives a full arrangement of PDF bites, as well as complete jargon PDF, practice keys, and different highlights. 6. Contains content that is handily changed into class exercises, and without any problem enhanced by on the web or different materials. 7. Incorporates conversational exercises and character exercises that can be utilized independently or together. 8. Incorporates conversational and character exercises that are connected yet not indistinguishable from one another, and which can be interleaved. 9. Shows perusing with both the customary (Taiwan) and improved (Mainland) character sets. 10. Shows characters inductively, by stressing perusing in setting so a lot as could reasonably be expected. The causes of this language and its situation in The language This is a course in Standard Chinese, a language that is regularly conversationally Insinuated as Mandarin. The Chinese-talking world will be examined beneath, in the segment on the semantic foundation. Variation Given the geographic spread of Mandarin over the Chinese-talking world, what's more, its capacity as a most widely used language existing together with local and nearby dialects, it isn't amazing that it shows a wide scope of variety in articulation, word decision, punctuation, and use. A few speakers, by prudence of geographic cause or instructive foundation, may profess to be authorities of 'acceptable' also, 'terrible' Mandarin, especially in issues of articulation, where the informed discourse of Beijing is commonly viewed as standard. Be that as it may, when it goes to the way to express individual words, word decision, specific subtleties of significance, a syntactic association of sentences, or semantic use, Chinese shows a scope of variety equivalent to, or maybe more noteworthy than, that of English, and such variety is simply prone to develop as contact with outsiders increments and the Chinese language spreads past the fringes of China. Learning Chinese perceives a standard PDF framework for Mandarin (as spoken to in the pinyin arrangement of Romanization) yet in any case acknowledges an expansive scope of utilization, quite a bit of it molded by social or geographic elements. There may likewise be unlabeled phonetic material in Learning Chinese that is made a decision about distorted by instructors or other local speakers of the language. Such decisions should be noted, yet they also may be overhauled as you proceed to notice the language in its full extravagance, as it is really spoken or composed. Objectives summed up Briefly, the objectives of Learning Chinese are: (a) a fundamental conversational ability, which implies the dominance of elocution and knowledge of a collection of valuable conversational circumstances, including a few, including language and social issues, that permit you as a student to investigate subjects of revenue; (b) an comprehension of the understanding cycle and the properties of the character composing framework with the goal that you can start to build up a perusing skill via altered messages are written in either the simplified or the conventional character set; (c) the capacity to speak to discourse with the pinyin arrangement of record, to compose a determination of characters from one of the standard character sets, and to utilize reference materials, word preparing, or different types of electronic correspondence to proceed to freely fabricate language ability, and (d) a fundamental experience with those parts of current Chinese society and culture that specifically identify with language use. Summary Output the enormous arrangement of characters and the examination and notes that follow to attempt to discover an association between each character and the word that it speaks to. Help yourself to remember the words and expressions that contain the new characters by concealing the pinyin with a pencil and perusing the expressions area. At that point reveal the pinyin and check. Utilizing set, do the readings until you have a reasonable perception of the entry while perusing it resoundingly. At last, total the activities, work on composing the characters until natural, also, survey.
how to 4 categories of network explain in english
Categories of Network LAN (Local Area Network) What is Local Area Network: The Local Area Network (LAN) is network that is usually contained within a room, floor, or building. A Local Area Network is typically privately owned and links the devices during a single office, building or campus of up to a couple of kilo meters in size.  Diagram of local area network    counting on the requirements of a corporation and therefore the sort of technology used, a LAN (Area of Local Network) are often as simple as two PCs and printer in someone’s whole office or it can extend throughout a corporation and include voice, sound, and video peripherals. A Local Area Network (LAN) may be a network that's confined to a comparatively small area. it's generally limited to a geographical area like an article lab, school, or building. Rarely are LAN (Local Area Network) computers quite a mile apart. Characteristics of LAN (Local Area Network) The defining Characteristics of Area of Local Network, in contrast to Wide Area Networks (WANs), include their much higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a requirement for leased telecommunication lines. Initially, LANs were limited to a rage of 185 meters or 600 feet and could not include more than 30 computers. Today, a LAN (Local Area Network) could connect a max of 1024 computers at a max distance of 900 meters or 2700 feet. LANs are designed to permit resources to be shared between personal computers or workstations. The resource to be shared can include hardware, software, or data. A common example of LAN (Network of Local Area), found in many business environments, links a piece group of task-related computers, for instance, engineering workstations or accounting PCs. READ MORE
What is dbms? (What database management system)
Introduction of database system : What is Database management system, or simply DBMS..? Just, consider the phonebook of your mobile phone. It contains a list of all contacts. In general, this list includes contact names and numbers. But, it can also include some other data about contacts, such as address, birth-date, e-mail id, etc depending upon the features of your mobile. You can insert (store) new contact details in this phonebook, update (modify) existing contact details, delete (remove) some contacts if not required, or search for a particular contact. This phonebook has a database, collection of data about various contacts, and a set of programs, to perform various operations like as insert, update, delete and search. In short, the phonebook of your mobile phone is one kind of DBMS. This post provides an overview of database management system, formerly known as DBMS. Chapter begins with the description about basic concepts of database management systems such as data, information, database, and database systems. After this, various ways to store and manage data are described including paper based systems, file processing systems and database management systems with their advantages and disadvantages. This follows the overview of various terminology used in DBMS. This includes data administrator, database administrator, metadata, system catalog, data dictionary and data warehouse. DBMS – an overview This section start with the description about data and information. It differentiates data and information – almost synonymously used terms in practice, but technically totally different from one another. After this, database and database systems are defined along with primary goals of DBMS. It follows description of operations that can be performed on DBMS and some of the well-known database-system applications. What is database? “A database is a collection inter-related data.” It represents some aspect of the real world. For example, consider a collection of customer id, name, address, contact number for some customer of a bank. Here, all the data – id, name, address, contact number – are inter-related. They all belong to some particular customer. In other words, they represent some particular customer. Also, data about accounts, loans, employees, branches are inter-related in context of some banking system. So, these data, in combine, forms a database for a bank. READ MORE WHAT IS DBMS
database administrators
Data Administrator (DA) and Database Administrator (DBA) Both of these terms – Data administrator and Database administrator – seem to be similar. Though they both are responsible for managing database for an organization they both are different from each other in their required skills and responsibilities. The following sub-sections explore these concepts of data administrator and database administrator. Data administrator (DA) “The data administrator may be a person within the organization who controls the info of the database.” DA determines what data to be stored in database supported requirements of the organization. DA is involved more within the requirements gathering, analysis, and style phases. DA may be a manager or some senior level person in a corporation who understands organizational requirements with reference to data. DA doesn't got to be a technical person, but any quite knowledge about database technology are often more beneficiary. In short, DA is a business focused person, but, he/she should understand more about the database technology. Database administrator (DBA)         “The database administrator may be a person within the organization who controls the planning and therefore the use of the database.” DBA provides necessary technical support for implementing a database. DBA is involved more within the design, development, testing and operational phases. DBA may be a technical person having knowledge of database technology. DBA doesn't got to be a business person, but any quite knowledge about an functionality of a corporation are often more beneficiary. In short, DBA is a technically focused person, but, he/she should understand more about the business to administer the databases effectively. Functions and Responsibilities of DBAs. 1.  Schema definition : The DBA defines the logical schema of the database. A schema refers to the general logical structure of the database. According to this schema database are going to be developed to store required data for a corporation . 2. Storage structure and access method definition : The DBA decides how the info is to be represented within the stored database. Based on this, storage structure of the database and access methods of knowledge is defined. 3. Assisting application programmers : The DBA provides assistance to application programmers to develop application programs. READ MORE
advantage and disadvantage of DBMS (Database management system)
Data storage: database management system The disadvantages of the file-oriented system are significantly improved by a database system. This section begins with the description about database approach in comparison to file-oriented system. After this, database system environment is described followed by the advantages & disadvantages of DBMS. Database approach The following differentiates the main difference between the database system and file-oriented system. As shown in above figure, in a database system, the data is managed by the DBMS. All access to the data is through the DBMS software. This provides an effective data processing. This contrasts to file-oriented system where application programs can directly interact with the data via operating system. In file processing system, there will be different files to store different kind of data. And, these files might have been stored at different location in different disks. In DBMS, all data are stored in single database. Also, this database is kept at a single centralized location. This reduces redundancies. Also, it makes data management more efficient. With centralized database, it is possible to provide centralized control over all the data. Database system environment A database system is a collection of database and a set of programs to manipulate data stored in a database. A database system provides basic functionalities like storage, manipulation and use of knowledge . 1. Data 2. Hardware 3. Software 4. Users 1. Data: Data is that the most vital component of the database system. Data means known facts which will be recorded and have implicit meanings. for instance , a customer can have data like customer id, name, address and get in touch with number. Collection of related data is referred as database. In other words, database is a repository of related data. For example, a database of a banking system involves collection of data about customers, employees, accounts, loans, branches etc. Such kind of data in a database are integrated and shared. Integrated data means they are correct and consistent. Correct-ness suggests that data satisfies the integrity rules, such as balance should not be negative. Consistency suggests that all the data stored in a database should be consistent. For example, an account should not have a branch name which does not exist. Depending upon the number of users interacting with the system, a database system can be single-users interacting with the system, a database system can be single-user system or multi-user system. In multi-user system, more than one users can access the database at the same time. READ MORE ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE DBMS
What is network topology and Explain its types?
Network Topology Network topology is the study of the arrangement or mapping of the weather (links, nodes, etc.) of a network, especially the physical (real) and logical (virtual) interconnections between nodes of a networks. A local area network (LAN) is one example of a network topology that exhibits both a physical topology and a logical topology. Basic types of Topologies The arrangement or mapping of the weather of a network gives rise to certain basic topologies which can then be combined to make more complex topologies (hybrid topologies). The most common of those basic type sorts of topology are: BUS (Linear Bus, Distributed Bus) Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Mesh Network Topology Partially connected mesh (or simply ‘mesh’) Fully connected mesh Tree Topology Hybrid Topology Point to Point Topology Star Topology In Star topology each device (node) is physically connected with central controller known as hub or switch, each device has a dedicated point devices are not directly connected with one another. A Star Topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central Network Topology hub or concentrator. Data on a Star Topology passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the Network Topology. It also acts as a repeater for the info flow. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable; however, it also can be used with coax or fiber optic cable. The protocols used with star configurations are usually Ethernet or Local Talk. Token Ring uses an identical topology, called The Star-Wired Ring. READ MORE