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mikyung0412
4 years ago
Sistema Ox Bel Ha
Sistema Ox Bel Ha is a cave system located underwater. It is, until now, continuously vying to be known as the longest underwater cave. This coastal cave is layered with freshwater that flow on top of the seawater, thus making it a halo cline, a mixing zone of water with unequal densities. The halocline at the Sistema Ox Bel Ha is measured at 25 to 52 feet deep, while the cave's total length is 231.17 km with a depth of 34.7 m. The cave can be entered through any of its 137 cenotes or pits. Located in Quintana Roo, Mexico, Sistema Ox Bel Ha was first explored in February 1996, and is considered ideal for advanced cave diving. The cave system is also frequented by tourists who go to swim and dive in the fresh waters surrounding Sistema Ox Bel Ha. It is also possible to exit into the Caribbean sea by swimming downstream the cave. The cave is surrounded by mangroves and many types of Savannah sea grasses. The isopods and the blind cavefish are some of the rare species of animals found in Sistema Ox Bel Ha. Summer may be the best time to visit Sistema Ox Bel Ha, because the climate is just right for exploring the different areas in the cave. Winter, on the other hand, may present conditions that make it difficult to traverse Sistema Ox Bel Ha.

mikyung0412
4 years ago
Wakulla - Leon Sinks
The Wakulla - Leon Sinks cave system is the longest mapped underwater cave in the United States and fourth largest mapped underwater cave in the world. Originally two distinct cave systems located at the Leon Sinks and Wakulla springs, a passage linking the two cave systems together was finally successfully mapped out by divers in December 2007. Two world records were set by divers from this exploration, part of the Woodville Karst Plain project: the longest cave dive between two entrances (nearly 7 mi) and the longest traverse in a deep cave. The total length of the explored cave passages is 3.2 mi (5.15 km). Between the two entrances more than 6.83 mi (11 km) must be dived, and the distance (direct line) between the extreme ends of this cave system is 9.5 mi (15.3 km). One of the highlights in this cave system is the Black Abyss, a room that is 49 m high. The Leon Sinks Geological Area is located on the Woodville Karst Plain in southern and southwestern Leon County, Florida, United States. It is a mature karstic area on the Upper Floridan Aquifer. It is one of the most extensive underwater cave systems in the world and connects to Wakulla Springs. This hydrological system is extremely vulnerable to pollution because of the very high permeability of the carbonate aquifer. The Leon Sinks are full of life, where freshwater eel and rare crustaceans, including the Woodville Karst Plain crayfish and the swimming Florida cave isopod Remasellus parvus, can be found.

mikyung0412
4 years ago
Sistema Nohoch Nah Chich
Sistema Nohoch Nah Chich is a cave system connected to the Caribbean Sea via a coastal spring called either Casa Cenote (for the restaurant located nearby), Cenote Manati, or Cenote Tankah. The explored cave system extends approximately 5 mi (8 km) inland from the coast. It is situated 10.3 mi (16.5 km) south of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Exploration of the cave commenced in 1987 from the cenote, Nohoch Nah Chich. Annual cave explorations are done by the CEDAM cave diving team, while a number of cave research efforts, in the fields of karst hydrogeology, water chemistry, microbiology, ecology, and archeology, were logistically supported. The technique of establishing jungle exploration camps at newly found cenotes and cave entrances was developed and refined during many cave exploration projects, thus making the cave diving exploration at the edges of the known cave more efficient. The main camp of exploration became Cenote "Far Point Station", located 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) from the coast, and 2.8 kilometers (1.7 mi) further inland than Main Base Camp situated at the main Nohoch Nah Chich Cenote entrance. In 1997, the Nohoch expedition expanded the total explored passage mark to 37 mi (60 km). By 2007 when it was connected into and included into the Sistema Sac Actun, the Sistema Nohoch Nah Chich included 36 cenotes and a recorded length of 42 mi (67 km). This portion of the system is now called the "Nohoch Nah Chich Historical section", where with 235 ft (71.6 m) also the greatest depth of the entire system was reached at "The Blue Abyss".

mikyung0412
4 years ago
Sistema Dos Ojos
Dos Ojos is a flooded cave system located north of Tulum, on the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán peninsula, in Quintana Roo, Mexico. It was first explored in 1987, and currently 51 mi (82 km) of the cave has been explored, with 28 sinkhole entrances being discovered. Dos Ojos lies parallel and to the north of the Sac Actun cave system. Since its discovery, Dos Ojos has been one of the longest underwater cave systems in the world, and contains the deepest known cave passage in Quintana Roo, the Pit, which is 391 ft (119.1 m) deep. Some deep passages include the "Wakulla Room," the "Beyond Main Base passage," "Jill's room," and "The Next Generation passage." In August 2012 Dos Ojos was connected through a dry passage to Sistema Sac Actun. By May 2013, the total length of the combined system measured 193.22 mi (310.95 km). Dos Ojos is an anchialine cave system with connections to marine water and tidal influence in the cenotes. The coastal discharge point(s) of this cave system have not yet been humanly explored through to the ocean, although large volumes of groundwater were demonstrated by dye tracing to flow towards Caleta Xel-Ha, a nearby coastal bedrock lagoon. The name, which in Spanish means two eyes, is a reference to two neighboring cenotes that connect into a very large cavern zone shared between the two, thus appearing like 2 very large eyes. The original cave diving exploration began through these cenotes. Water temperature is around 77 °F (25 °C) throughout the year, while the maximum depth near the Dos Ojos cenotes is approximately 33 ft (10 m). The water, due to being filtered by very pure limestone, is exceptionally clear. There are several varieties of fish living in the cavern, the majority of which are well under 3.9 in (10 cm) long, and at least two types of freshwater shrimp.