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phitecus
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Basics 1
Capitalizing nouns In German, all nouns are capitalized. For example, "my name" is "mein Name," and "the apple" is "der Apfel." This helps you identify which are the nouns in a sentence. Three grammatical genders, three types of nouns Nouns in German are either feminine, masculine or neuter. For example, "Frau" (woman) is feminine, "Mann" (man) is masculine, and "Kind" (child) is neuter. The grammatical gender may not match the biological gender: "Mädchen" (girl) is a neuter noun. It is very important to learn every noun along with its gender because parts of German sentences change depending on the gender of their nouns. Generally speaking, the definite article "die" (the) and the indefinite article "eine" (a/an) are used for feminine nouns, "der" and "ein" for masculine nouns, and "das" and "ein" for neuter nouns. For example, it is "die Frau," "der Mann," and "das Kind." However, later you will see that this changes depending on something called the "case of the noun." Conjugations of the verb sein (to be) A few verbs like "sein" (to be) are completely irregular, and their conjugations simply need to be memorized: ich bin: I am du bist: you (singular informal) are er/sie/es ist: he/she/it is wir sind: we are ihr seid: you (plural informal) are sie sind: they are Sie sind: you (formal) are Conjugating regular verbs Verb conjugation in German is more challenging than in English. To conjugate a regular verb in the present tense, identify the invariant stem of the verb and add the ending corresponding to any of the grammatical persons, which you can simply memorize: trinken (to drink) I: (-e) ich trinke you (singular informal): (-st) du trinkst he/she/it: (-t) er/sie/es trinkt we: (-en) wir trinken you (plural informal): (-t) ihr trinkt you (formal): (-en) Sie trinken they: (-en) sie trinken Notice that the 1st and the 3rd person plural have the same ending as "you (formal)." Umlauts Umlauts are letters (more specifically vowels) that have two dots above them and appear in some German words like "Mädchen." Literally, "Umlaut" means "around the sound," because its function is to change how the vowel sounds. An umlaut can sometimes indicate the plural of a word. For example, the plural of "Mutter" (mother) is "Mütter." It might even change the meaning of a word entirely. That's why it's very important not to ignore those little dots. No continuous aspect In German, there's no continuous aspect, i.e. there are no separate forms for "I drink" and "I am drinking". There's only one form: Ich trinke. There's no such thing as Ich bin trinke or Ich bin trinken! When translating into English, how can I tell whether to use the simple (I drink) or the continuous form (I am drinking)? Unless the context suggests otherwise, either form should be accepted.
Mann: man Frau: woman Junge: boy ich: I bin: am ein: a (female) eine: a (male) Ich bin eine Frau: I am a woman Ein Mann: a man Ich bin ein Junge: i am a boy
du: you bist: are Kind: child (neuter) Mädchen: girl (neuter) und: and Du bist eine Frau und ich bin ein Mann: You are a woman and i am a man Ein Kind: a child Du bist ein Kind: you are a child Ein Junge und ein Mädchen: a boy and a girl
Brot: bread Wasser: water er: he sie: she es: it ist: is trinkt: drink Brot und Wasser: bread and water Sie ist ein Mädchen: she is a girl Er trinkt: he is drinking Es ist ein Mädchen: it is a girl Sie trinkt: she drinks Er ist ein Kind: he is a child
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