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Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - Port Orford cedar, Gingerpine, Lawson's cypress, Oregon cedar, Port Orford cypress, Port Orford white-cedar, Port-Orford cedar
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened Port Orford Cedar (POC) is native to a limited area along the Pacific Coast from Coos Bay, Oregon, to the mouth of the Mad River near Arcata, California, USA.  Its range extends from the coast to about 50 miles inland.  There is also a small disjunct population in the Scott Mountains of California. This species occurs in the greatest abundance within about 64 km of the Pacific coast. Further inland, its distribution is patchy, and it is mostly limited to sites with sufficient soil moisture.  The expect this taxon to be down listed to Least Concern within the next 10 years provided that current conservation actions are successful and maintained. Until then, it is assessed as Near Threatened on the basis that its recent decline almost meets the criterion B2ab(iii) for listing as threatened. Although POC has a narrow geographic range, it occupies many different environments. The species is found at elevations from sea level to 1950 meters, in glacial basins, along streams, on terraces, and on mountain side-slopes from lower to upper one-third slope positions. POC shows adaptability to a wide range of summer evapotranspiration stress, from very high humidity along the coast to very low summer humidity inland.  Soils where POC is found are derived from many parent materials, including sandstone, schist, phyllite, granite, diorite, gabbro, serpentine, peridotite, and volcanics. At lower elevations it is often found on ultramafic soil types. POC has moderately high shade tolerance, and is more tolerant than Incense cedar, Sugar pine, Douglas fir and Western white pine, and less tolerant than Shasta red fir, Brewer spruce, White fir, Sitka spruce, Grand fir, Western red cedar, and Western hemlock.  Other studies show POC able to reproduce well in all but the darkest microsites, including late-successional stands.  Zobel and Hawk (1980) found POC to survive under shade as well or better than all its competitors except Western Hemlock. In addition to being shade tolerant, POC is tolerant of repeated fire (Hawk 1977).  Even as pole-sized trees, POC has a good chance of surviving fires (Zobel et al. 1985). Fire resistance is less than that of Douglas Fir, but greater than that of the true firs or Western Hemlock.  POC is often the first species to reinvade after fire. POC is characterized as having fairly low drought resistance (Zobel et al. 1985), and its requirements for moisture during the growing season may limit its natural distribution. POC is considered more drought tolerant than Western Hemlock and Sitka Spruce, but is less tolerant than Douglas fir, Jeffrey pine, Incense cedar, Sugar pine, and most other trees found in its range (Zobel et al. 1985). Much of the range of POC usually has wet winters, dry summers, relatively uniform temperatures, high relative humidity, and frequent summer fog. Away from the coastal influences, in the south and east portion of its range, rainfall, relative humidity, and summer fog are decreased, while the temperature fluctuations in both the summer and winter are greater (USDA-FS 1965). Moisture regime strongly influences plant community development within the range of POC. To most populations of POC, a consistent abundance of water seems a critical necessity (Zobel et al. 1985). Where douglas fir is present it out-competes POC for water.  Only in the northern part of the range does the ratio of available water to evapotranspiration compensate for this competition (Zobel et al. 1985). POC may out-compete Douglas fir in areas with low macronutrients, or cold or saturated soils. International trade in the timber has previously put enormous pressure on the remaining old growth stands. The spread of the introduced pathogen Phytophthora lateralis continues and limits successful regeneration in many areas, especially those accessible by road. The current range of POC falls within the traditional territories of numerous American Indian Tribes along the west coast of North America.  Included is the 5,400-acre forest of the Coquille Indian Tribe in west-central Oregon which is managed according to many of the Standards and Guidelines of adjacent Federal land.  POC continues to play a significant role in the cultural and religious life of many Tribes living within the POC range from west-central Oregon south through northwest California.  Specific information concerning where, how, what time of year, and by whom POC is harvested and used is restricted from distribution. Cedars of all types are considered the most used wood by native cultures of the Pacific Northwest.  Despite declining availability, the cultural importance of POC remains high given its physical and structural characteristics, distinctive appearance, and aroma.  The smells of POC also enhance the meaning of cultural rituals.  Known for its durability, POC has straight grain properties allowing it to be split evenly.  POC is sought as a source of planks for building traditional structures and for arrows or lances that support bone or stone projectile points.  However, shortages and diminishing accessibility to mature trees sometimes relegates POC to parts of a plank house or sweat lodge, such as benches or sidewalls.  This is also true for construction of canoes. POC has other traditional uses.  Boughs are used as brooms, and the bark and roots are peeled and finely shredded for use in making traditional clothing, basketry, nets, twine, mats, and other items.  Limbs may be twisted into rope. Unlike Western red cedar and Incense cedar, POC has limited medicinal value due to its highly toxic character as a diuretic.  Similarly, POC is less effective than Incense Cedar for preserving and storing perishable materials such as feathers, hides, and other materials.  POC typically does not have the cedar-closet aroma of other cedars. The declining availability of healthy, mature POC trees through the 20th century has increased the importance of remaining POC stands to Tribes.  Although the region has experienced an economic and cultural rejuvenation by the Tribes, a declining availability of POC due to several factors, including past timber cutting, disease, endangered species protection, fish protection, and land use allocations, hinders Tribal initiatives to restore and revive cultural traditions. Agencies issue permits for collection of special forest products including non-POC boughs, beargrass, and cones, but seldom issue permits for POC product collections.  Therefore, quantitative data concerning modern-day cultural uses of POC is highly variable among the Tribes and generally not readily available outside Tribal communities.  In general, however, use of POC is at modest levels. Maintenance of POC stands on Federal lands as a culturally-important species is important to Tribes and fulfills Federal policies and goals for accommodating traditional Tribal uses.  These uses are also consistent with the “American Indian Religious Act,” and other statutes that highlight the importance of traditional cultural uses of plants on Federal lands.  There are no effects to the exercise of those rights, because there are no off-reservation treaty reserved rights within POC range. POC shares the same decay-resistant properties as other cedars, such as Western red cedar and Incense cedar, and is used for posts, rails, and shakes.  Western red cedar and Incense Cedar are more sought after because they have a wider range and are more easily accessible. POC is in greatest demand for boughs during Christmas and to a lesser degree, for year-long floral arrangements.  Boughs have a graceful, flat, beaded-lace appearance that makes them ideal for tying continuous strands to a wire backing for garlands or for layering into Christmas wreaths. The foliage also combines beauty with durability and needle retention that allows it to be preserved with glycerin mixtures for long-lasting floral displays. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/chamaecyparis/chamaecyparis-lawsoniana
Qu'est ce que le survivalisme ?
Le survivalisme par définition est un mode de vie qui constitue à une préparation à une éventuelle catastrophe. La préparation des survivants repose principalement sur l'apprentissage des techniques de survie et des concepts médicaux. Avec la bonne préparation, le bon équipement et les bons vêtements avec notre boutique militariat, vous pouvez survivre à la forêt ou prévenir les catastrophes. L'origine du survivalisme a commencé avec l'herbertisme. Il s'agit d'un événement pour former l'officier de marine Georges Hébert. Le but de cette activité est de devenir puissant et utile. Pour ce faire, il est nécessaire de réaliser une éducation sportive, nature et utilitaire. Aux États-Unis dans les années 1960, l'inflation et la dépréciation ont incité les gens à adopter l'idée de kits de sauvetage. À partir des années 1970, certains livres sur le mot « survie » et les méthodes appropriées ont commencé à paraître. Kurt Saxon sera le premier à utiliser le terme "survivaliste". Cependant, John Pugsley publiera "Strategy Alpha" dans les années 1980. Ce livre est devenu une référence pour les survivalistes américains. Dans les années 1990, le mythe du bug du millénaire a donné un nouvel élan au mouvement survivaliste. Les divers événements catastrophiques de 2000 à nos jours continuent d'alimenter la peur et de stimuler la motivation survivaliste. La survie est parfois liée aux croyances religieuses. Être préparé signifie parfois commencer un long voyage avec la famille, les amis et les voisins, mais parfois le voyage doit être commencé seul. Ne pas se préparer, bien ou mal, à l'effondrement imminent, souvent appelé survivalisme. En revanche, il peut y avoir rupture plus ou moins normale. Ils dépendent de l'âge, du sexe, du lieu de résidence, de la formation précédente, des personnes accompagnantes, du matériel disponible... Ainsi, notre magasin survivaliste a pour objectif de regrouper au même endroit du matériel utile et de qualité, et à un prix abordable, dans le respect des grandes règles des survivalistes : eau, alimentation, énergie, hygiène/santé, défense, et blog Connaissances. Par conséquent, nous ne parlerons pas d'invasion extraterrestre...
Thuja plicata - Western Red-cedar, Canoe cedar, Giant arbor-vitae, Giant cedar, Pacific red-cedar, Shinglewood
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Despite extensive logging, the extensive range and abundance of Thuja plicata makes it ineligible for any threatened category and it is therefore assessed as Least Concern. The two more or less disjunct areas in which this species occurs: Pacific coastal mountains and Rocky Mountains, experience a different climate and therefore sustain different forest types. The mostly much wetter (winter rainfall, up to 6,600 mm p.a.) and milder coastal ranges support the tallest conifer forests in the world, with Sequoia sempervirens in the southern part exceeding 110 m and with Abies grandis to 80 m, Abies procera 85 m, Picea sitchensis 87 m, Pinus lambertiana 75 m, Pseudotsuga menziesii 100 m, and Tsuga heterophylla to 80 m tall. Many of these trees also exceed any of their congeners elsewhere in overall size (Van Pelt 2001). Thuja plicata, with max. 75 m, is one of the longest-lived in these forests, with veteran trees often in excess of 1,000 years. Other conifers in these coastal forests are Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (extreme southern part of range), Xanthocyparis nootkatensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, Tsuga mertensiana, and Taxus brevifolia in the understorey. Common angiosperm trees are Acer macrophyllum, Alnus rubra along rivers, and Populus trichocarpa; in the shrub layer are especially abundant Vaccinium spp., Rubus spectabilis and Ribes bracteosum. Deep layers of mosses and liverworts cover the forest floor and lower sections of tree trunks as well as fallen logs, on which latter most conifers find the only substrate to germinate. In the interior Abies grandis, Abies lasiocarpa, Larix occidentalis, Picea engelmannii, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, and Taxus brevifolia are the most commonly associated conifers. Here annual precipitation does not exceed 1,200 mm and winters are much colder than along the coast. This species is common especially in the coastal sections of its extensive range and somewhat less so in the interior parts. (Selective) logging of mature trees and 'old growth' forest in which this species is a codominant continues in many areas where the forest is not on protected land. In situations where secondary forest growth is managed to favour other species (e.g. Pseudotsuga menziesii), this would lead to a decrease of occupancy of Thuja plicata. Plantation forestry focusing on this species should eventually reduce the level of exploitation of natural stands, in particular in 'old growth' forest with its high ecological value. At present this species is not considered to be in danger of extinction. The wood of this species provided the main building material for the Amerindian tribes along the Pacific coast, who developed a technique to split large planks from the lower boles of big trees without destroying the trees themselves. Nowadays, its main use is for making shingles used in roofing residential buildings; as in most Cupressaceae, the wood is decay-resistant and easy to work. For large construction purposes it is less suitable as it tends to split, but it can be used for a variety of smaller utilities from garden sheds, glass houses, and furniture to tools. Western Red-cedar has been used in forestry plantations in some countries in NW Europe on a rather limited scale; it requires high rainfall and performs best in the wetter parts of the British Isles. Thuja plicata has been widely planted as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens. It is also suitable for hedges as it grows back quickly from clipping. Fewer cultivars are known from this species than from Thuja occidentalis, but it is nevertheless of substantial importance in the horticultural trade. This species is present in many protected areas, including some famous National Parks in both Canada and the USA. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/thuja/thuja-plicata
Chia sẻ kinh nghiệm làm đẹp da (p2)
Chào cả nhà, em đã dùng sữa ong chúa được hơn 1 năm và giờ đây em cảm nhận được hiệu quả của sữa ong chúa mang lại. Bằng chứng là trước đây khi chưa dùng sữa ong chúa thì da em bị mụn cám và mụn trứng cá, có cả mụn bọc nữa, da em thuộc da dầu và lỗ chân lông to, nên khi dù dùng các loại kem hay thuốc trị mụn gì cũng không hết. Vì những vấn đề này xuất phát từ nội tiết tố trong cơ thể bị rối loạn, không cân bằng được. Em tìm đủ mọi phương pháp, uống tây, nam gì cũng không giảm được nhiều. Nhưng khi em biết đến sản phẩm sữa ong chúa tươi từ một người bạn, lúc đầu nghe nói e cũng không tin lắm, nhưng cũng tìm hiểu chỗ bán uy tín và đặt về dùng thử xem có hiệu quả không?. Sau khi em sử dụng được một thời gian, có khi em sẽ đắp mặt nạ sữa ong chúa tươi, có khi em sẽ trộn sữa ong chúa với các nguyên liệu tự nhiên khác, ví dụ như mật ong, tinh bột nghệ, bột yến mạch, hay bột trà xanh, nha đam,… mỗi tuần em chỉ đắp mặt nạ sữa ong chúa từ 2 - 3 lần vì da mặt em là da nhạy cảm nên không dám đắp nhiều. Cứ thế em đã kiên trì được một thời gian thì da mặt mình có sự thay đổi rõ ràng, khi soi gương mình không còn thấy mụn nổi nữa mà lỗ chân lông cũng đã nhỏ hơn trước, lượng dầu cũng giảm hẳn. Sáng ngủ dậy, rửa mặt thấy da mình trông trắng hồng và mịn màng nhìn thấy thích lắm. Bây gờ, chỉ cần một chút son là có thế ra đường đi cà phê với bạn bè rồi.
Ait Ben Haddou Kasbah
The ksar, a group of earthen buildings surrounded by high walls, is a traditional pre-Saharan habitat. The houses crowd together within the defensive walls, which are reinforced by corner towers. Ait-Ben-Haddou, in Ouarzazate province, is a striking example of the architecture of southern Morocco. Located in the foothills on the southern slopes of the High Atlas in the Province of Ouarzazate, the site of Ait-Ben-Haddou is the most famous ksar in the Ounila Valley. The Ksar of Aït-Ben-Haddou is a striking example of southern Moroccan architecture. The ksar is a mainly collective grouping of dwellings. Inside the defensive walls which are reinforced by angle towers and pierced with a baffle gate, houses crowd together - some modest, others resembling small urban castles with their high angle towers and upper sections decorated with motifs in clay brick - but there are also buildings and community areas. It is an extraordinary ensemble of buildings offering a complete panorama of pre-Saharan earthen construction techniques. The oldest constructions do not appear to be earlier than the 17th century, although their structure and technique were propagated from a very early period in the valleys of southern Morocco. The site was also one of the many trading posts on the commercial route linking ancient Sudan to Marrakesh by the Dra Valley and the Tizi-n'Telouet Pass. Architecturally, the living quarters form a compact grouping, closed and suspended. The community areas of the ksar include a mosque, a public square, grain threshing areas outside the ramparts, a fortification and a loft at the top of the village, an caravanserai, two cemeteries (Muslim and Jewish) and the Sanctuary of the Saint Sidi Ali or Amer. The Ksar of Ait- Ben-Haddou is a perfect synthesis of earthen architecture of the pre-Saharan regions of Morocco. Criterion (iv): The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou is an eminent example of a ksar in southern Morocco illustrating the main types of earthen constructions that may be observed dating from the 17th century in the valleys of Dra, Todgha, Dadès and Souss. Criterion (v): The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou illustrates the traditional earthen habitat, representing the culture of southern Morocco, which has become vulnerable as a result of irreversible socio-economic and cultural changes Integrity (2009) All the structures comprising the ksar are located within the boundaries of the property and the buffer zone protects its environment. The earthen buildings are very vulnerable due to lack of maintenance and regular repair resulting from the abandonment of the ksar by its inhabitants. The CERKAS (Centre for the conservation and rehabilitation of the architectural heritage of atlas and sub-atlas zones) monitors, with difficulty, respect for the visual integrity of the property. Authenticity (2009) In comparison to other ksour of the region, the Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou has preserved its architectural authenticity with regard to configuration and materials. The architectural style is well preserved and the earthen constructions are perfectly adapted to the climatic conditions and are in harmony with the natural and social environment. The large houses in the lower part of the village, with well conserved decorative motifs, are regularly maintained. The construction materials used still remain earth and wood. The inclination to introduce cement has so far been unsuccessful, thanks to the continued monitoring of the «Comité de contrôle des infractions» (Rural Community, Town Planning Division, Urban Agency, CERKAS). Only a few lintels and reinforced concrete escaped its vigilance, but they have been hidden by earthen rendering. Particular attention is also paid to doors and windows giving on to the lanes, to ensure that the wood is not replaced by metal. Protection and management requirements (2009) Protection measures essentially relate to the different laws for the listing of historic monuments and sites, in particular the Law 22-80 concerning Moroccan heritage. The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou currently has a five-year management plan (2007-2012). This management plan is the result of two years of reflection and workshops involving all the persons and institutions concerned with the future of the site, in particular the local populations. The recommendations of this plan are being implemented. Furthermore, two management committees have been established (a local committee and a national one) in which all the parties are represented and cooperate in decision-making. As well as managing the property, CERKAS ensures coordination in the implementation of this management plan. visit our site for more informations...