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Bộ Giáo dục chấn chỉnh lạm thu đầu năm học

Đây là một thực trạng được Bộ GD&ĐT nhận định thông qua phản ánh của phụ huynh, người dân.
Để chấn chỉnh lại tình trang này Bộ GD&ĐT đề nghị Ủy ban nhân dân các tỉnh, thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương chỉ đạo sở giáo dục và đào tạo phối hợp với các cơ quan có liên quan thực hiện hướng dẫn, giám sát và kiểm tra các cơ sở giáo dục trên địa bàn thực hiện các khoản thu, chi trong trường học đảm bảo đúng các quy định hiện hành.
Đối với các khoản đóng góp, tài trợ theo hình thức xã hội hóa để góp phần tăng cường cơ sở vật chất, trường lớp, hỗ trợ các hoạt động giáo dục phải thực hiện theo Thông tư số 29/2012/TT-BGDĐT ngày 10/9/2012 của Bộ trưởng Bộ GD&ĐT quy định về tài trợ cho các cơ sở giáo dục thuộc hệ thống giáo dục quốc dân.
Theo đó, trong Thông tư số 29 quy định, các cơ sở giáo dục tiếp nhận tài trợ bằng tiền mặt, giá trị khoản tài trợ phải được theo dõi và ghi chép trong sổ sách kế toán của cơ sở giáo dục theo quy định hiện hành.
Việc tiếp nhận tài trợ bằng hiện vật quy định, cơ sở giáo dục tiếp nhận tài trợ bằng hiện vật, cụ thể: sách, vở, quần áo, lương thực, thực phẩm, vật liệu, thiết bị, đồ dùng dạy học và các hiện vật khác có giá trị sử dụng và đáp ứng được nhu cầu thiết thực của người học và cơ sở giáo dục.
Không tiếp nhận hiện vật không cần dùng trong cơ sở giáo dục, hiện vật độc hại, nguy hiểm đối với sức khoẻ của người dạy và người học. Giá trị của hiện vật được tài trợ phải được theo dõi và ghi chép trong sổ kế toán của cơ sở giáo dục theo quy định.
Trong Công văn mới này, Bộ GD&ĐT đề nghị có hình thức xử lý nghiêm, kịp thời đối với hiệu trưởng những cơ sở giáo dục để xảy ra tiêu cực trong việc lợi dụng danh nghĩa Ban đại diện cha mẹ học sinh để thu góp hoặc ép buộc học sinh may (mua) quần áo đồng phục trái quy định.
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How to calculate the thickness of PE bags suitable for your product
https://baobikhangloi.com.vn/bao-bi-nhua-cua-toi-can-co-do-day-bao-nhieu-la-du How to calculate the thickness of PE bags suitable for your product Polyethylene is a material accounting for more than 50% of the market share of plastic packaging industry, and low -density polyethylene (LDPE) is the source of most PE plastic bags produced. The bag is made of PE plastic, which provides large tensile strength, transparency, flexibility and impressive water prevention. It is also resistant to most alkaline compounds, acid and most importantly, the FDA approved for use as food packaging. PE bags have brought manufacturers in all industries with diverse, high quality packaging solutions with low cost, of course, with the condition that the size and thickness must be calculated correctly correctly. . So how to calculate the appropriate thickness for PE plastic packaging? To calculate the appropriate thickness for a PE plastic bag (polyethylene) to pack the product, you will need to consider three factors: Calculating the product to be contained inside, the ability to protect necessary for the product Your product avoids damage, and ideal durability for the packaging not to be damaged before reaching the final consumer. • Suitable for the product: Which item you need to store inside the PE plastic bag? Consider the parameters of the product such as size, shape, and especially weight. The items are heavier and bigger than the thicker plastic bag requirements. However, the thicker the plastic membrane is reduced, so not the thicker packaging is always good. • Protection level: Does your product need sharp or sharp edges that can tear the packaging or not, or too much of transportation and loading of goods? If one of the above factors appears, you may need a slightly thicker packaging. Delicate or more detailed items also require a slightly thicker plastic bag to prevent goods from being scratched, broken or broken. • The use time of the packaging: Is your product consumed immediately or to save, and how long it takes to reach the user? And you or customers wishing to reuse this packaging too? A reusable bag must have at least 50 micrometers thickness, and the thicker the plastic bag, the harder it is, the harder it is to be crispy and torn when it goes through a long period of use. Some manufacturers of pillows, mattresses, suitcases ... often use thick packaging so customers can take advantage of these bags themselves in preserving, avoiding dust and product moisture when not in use. This is a particularly sophisticated thing and can create better images for the brand. • Economic efficiency: With thinner thickness, the price of each plastic bag will be cheaper due to the use of less materials to create packaging. When the thickness increases, the cost will increase commensurate with the amount of material used. Budget factors when producing large and long -term production will need to be considered to bring economic efficiency to your business. Understanding the size or thickness of plastic packaging will help you choose the right plan for your product. Choosing the right type of bag is very important for the success of the packaging strategy, and brings economic efficiency when saving costs. PE plastic bags that are too thin can be torn during transportation, which can cause damage to the product. On the other hand, the thickness is too large to provide a lot of protection, but brings an unnecessary yield when large -scale production Some suggestions for choosing thickness for PE plastic bags Plastic packaging manufacturers measure the thickness of the plastic bag with a micrometet unit (abbreviated as micron), a micrometet equal to 0.001mm and its symbol is μm. • Ped bags from 20 to 30 microns are often used for short -term packaging types and requires low level of protection. These bags are designed to temporarily store light items such as food bags, grocery bags, sugarcane juice bags, confectionery ... • PE bags from 40 to 50 micron are used for light or medium weight products. For example, items such as clothing, components, plastic parts, or bags used for lining in paper boxes. Plastic bags shopping in fashion shops, phones often use thickness in this range, and this is the most common thickness of plastic bags used in all industries. • PE bags from 70 to 80 micron are suitable for average to heavy products, such as hardware components and parts, metal parts. Most plastic furniture and pillow packaging, thin mattresses are produced at this thickness. This 70 to 80 thick mic bag provides impressive anti -piercing resistance, while helping the bag can be reused many times, such as the zipper bags that we often use. • 100 to 120 micron thick PE bags used for bulky items that packaging needs more strength to keep them in the right position. They are also used for heavy or sharp items, at risk of puncturing packaging such as bolts, screws, motorcycle parts. • 130 to 140 micron thick PE bags for products with sharp edges or S
How to calculate the weight of a plastic bag when knowing the size and thickness
https://baobikhangloi.com.vn/cach-tinh-can-nang-cua-tui-nhua-khi-biet-kich-thuoc-va-do-day a. What is specific gravity or density? Specific gravity or density is the mass of matter in a given volume, is calculated by dividing the mass of matter by its volume. Here we have the formula: D = m/V, with D (Density) is the density, m is the mass and V is the volume. b. What does the density index mean? The density of a substance helps us to calculate their weight per unit volume, knowing how much heavier one substance is than another based on their density. For example, gasoline has a density of 700 kg/m3, which means that the amount of gasoline contained in a tank with a volume of 1 cubic meter will weigh 700 kg. Iron has a density of 7800 kg/m3, which means that one cubic meter of iron will weigh exactly 7800 kg. All chemical elements known to man have been found to have their densities by measuring and experimenting many times. c. How to calculate the weight of a plastic bag by density We already have the formula for density above, and when we reverse the equation, we can calculate the weight when we know the density and volume. The formula would be: m= D x V Density is given in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) or grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). Given the very light weight of plastic packaging, converting to the g/cm3 system will help simplify the formula for calculating their mass. The density (D) of each plastic material can be found easily online, or from your packaging supplier. This parameter is printed on the plastic resins packaging that they use to create the product. For example: The density (D) of POF shrink film is 0.92 g/cm3, LDPE is 0.91 and PVC is 1.4. The volume of the bag will be calculated by length x width x height, and the height here is the thickness of the bag (of both sides of the bag combined). Don't forget to convert the thickness to cm. If the thickness is being measured in mm, divide it by 10, and if it's in microns, divide it by 10000. Let's take an example: the size of LDPE plastic bags is 80 cm x 150 cm x 70 microns, we have the formula for weight calculation as D x V = 0.91 x 80 x 150 x 0.007 = 76.44 grams/ bag. 1 kg is equal to 1000 grams, dividing 1000 by 76.44 we get 13.08. That is, with the above LDPE 80 x 150 cm bag size 70 micron thick, one kilogram will include about 13 bags.. It should be noted that the thickness in this case is for both sides of the bag, which means that each membrane layer of a bag is only 35 microns thick.
What are the special features of vacuum bags, what material are they made of?
https://baobikhangloi.com.vn/tui-hut-chan-khong-mang-ghep-pa-pe Depending on the purpose of packaging, we can use single-layer plastic bags or laminated film packaging (multi-layer) to vacuum. In theory, all types of plastic bags can be vacuumed, as long as they are thick enough to not tear under the strong suction of the vacuum. After the air is sucked out and sealed, the packaging must remain intact so that air does not re-enter the interior. For the purpose of vacuuming for family activities, most types of thick enough plastic bags can meet well. However, in industrial production, the story is completely different. Vacuum bags for frozen foods require the ability to withstand low temperatures for a long time without drying out, a phenomenon that common plastic materials such as LDPE, HDPE or PP all face. As for the purpose of packaging to minimize the volume and volume of packages such as pillowcases, comforters, mattresses, etc., The packaging used needs to be soft and flexible but still has to be strong enough to withstand extreme suction, compressing the product inside to the smallest possible size. High-thickness Low-density Polyethylene (LDPE) bags can meet these packaging requirements. When the vacuum cleaner sucks the air out of the package, it creates wrinkles and shrinks on the package. With stiffer materials such as Polypropylene (PP) or High-density Polyethylene (HDPE), these creases can form tearing folds that lead to packaging failure. Vacuum LDPE bags can also be added to the material tank when being produced, adding a toughness additive to the material tank, which improves packaging performance significantly. Returning to the vacuum-sealed plastic bag for frozen food, manufacturers need to find a material that can withstand strong suction to completely remove the air inside, and can withstand freezing temperatures for a long time. There are many engineering plastics that can meet this requirement, but they have problems with heat sealing. And most importantly, they have not been proven to be safe and approved for food storage according to the standards issued in many countries. Using such packaging would be very unsafe, and the product contained inside would almost no longer have a chance to be exported. And the main solution is a type of laminated film packaging made up of many layers of materials combined to create outstanding properties, with the innermost layer in direct contact with the product being food safe materials (LDPE). and outer layers are engineering plastics with outstanding properties. There are many types of vacuum bags with different compositions such as PET/PE, PA/PE, PE/PA/EVOH, OPET/PP, OPA/PP, etc. There are also bags due to special requirements that are composed of 5, even 7 different layers of film. The selection of the right type of vacuum bag will be based on the needs and responsiveness of each type of material that makes them up. For example, bags made of PA/PE are safe to boil at 100°C, but cannot be sterilized at 121°C, but PA/PP or PET/PP bags can. This is because the melting point of PE is only 120°C and PP is up to 165°C. There is one thing in common among all vacuum bags currently on the market, is that they can all be considered freezer safe, because this is the core purpose of this type of packaging.
Technical data sheet: properties and parameters of plasic resin
https://baobikhangloi.com.vn/bang-du-lieu-ky-thuat-cac-dac-tinh-va-thong-so-cua-hat-nhua 1. Melt Flow Index (MFI) Melt Flow Index (MFI) or also known as flow rate - Melt Flow Rate (MFR) is a measure of the ability of molten plastic to move under a specific pressure. This is an important, regularly tested metric as they tell us and control the flow of molten plastic from the tank through the screw to the blow mold, die, injection molding head or any other parts that have any other shaping function. MFI is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the resin. Low MFI means high viscosity materials, they flow with greater resistance and hence slower than low viscosity materials. The MFI can be the only indicator on the technical data sheet that has no specific value that can vary significantly from batch to batch with the same resin code. This is because polymer copolymerization is unlikely to take place precisely at the molecular level. The length of the polymer chains affects the average molecular weight and viscosity of the finished product, and changes the MFI. In many cases, MFI index is the criterion to evaluate the quality of a batch produced on the same type of plastic resin and manufacturer. The MFI index tells us which materials are suitable for which type and treatment method in the manufacturing industry. Injection molding machines, blow extruders tend to be suitable for materials with high flow rates (low viscosity). The extruder is compatible with low flow rate (high viscosity) materials. Strict control of the MFI value of input materials is important to the productivity and quality of the product. The MFI number exceeds the normal level, causing the plastic to be pushed out too quickly, and if it is too low, will cause the plastic to flow out too slowly. In all cases, other parameters on the mechanical system are affected. There are two methods of measuring plastic flow, automatic or manual, based on ASTM D1238 or ISO 1133 test standards. The manual measurement process, temporarily called process A, is useful for organizations whom do occasional testing, using a variety of materials in order to find a better and more suitable material for their production of plastic products job. Process B, on the other hand, is an automated process, ideal for organizations that repeatedly test the same material under different conditions, to find the correct value for scientific purposes. Theoretically, both methods, if properly implemented, should give identical test results. The range of factors that can affect MFI flow index test results is very wide. For accurate results, it is necessary to be aware of each problem, strictly follow the equipment inspection and maintenance procedures. The plastometer machine used in the test is constructed of a temperature-controlled cylindrical material tank. The resin introduced into this tube, after being melted, is forced to flow through a capillary tube with a diameter of 2,095 mm at the bottom of the barrel, under the pressure of a piston actuated by a standard weight. The mass of molten plastic in grams that flows through the capillary in 10 minutes is the MFI of the material. There is also a slight difference between standards ASTM D1238 and ISO 1133. But they perform essentially the same function, and the manufacturers consider them to be technically equivalent. ASTM D1238 is the test method for measuring MFI flow rates for thermoplastics expressed in units of grams/10 minutes. And ISO 1133 standard defines volumetric melt rate (MVR) in cm3/ 10 minutes The melt volume (MVR) obtained in the ISO 1133 test, multiplied by the melt density gives the MFI. However, it should be noted that the density when melted plastic is not the same as the density of the material under normal conditions. For example, Polypropylene has a specific density of 0.91 grams/cm3 but their melting density is only 0.70 grams/cm3. Applying the density or density value under normal conditions to calculate the MFI with the MVR value gives misleading results.