Gaz (گز) is the traditional name of Persian nougat originating from the city of Esfahan and Boldaji, located in the central plateau of Iran. The same nougat is also made in Iraq where it is known as Mann al-Sama. The name gaz is associated with gaz-angebin which translates to "sap of angebin"; in reference to a species of Tamarisk, T. gallica that is native to the Zagros mountain range located to the west of the city. The sweet, milky sap (gaz of Khunsar) found on the angebin plant is associated with manna, a food mentioned in the religious texts of the Abrahamic religions. The sticky white substance, exuded from the anus of the last instar nymph of a small insect (Cyamophila astragalicola Gegechkori,Psyllidae or Cyamophila dicora Loginova) which lives on the plant, is collected annually and is combined with other ingredients including pistachio or almond kernels, rosewater and egg white. Modern versions of gaz may not contain gaz of Khunsar and may use sugar and corn syrup as substitutes. This combination of ingredients gives gaz its distinctive flavour, rendering it unique when compared to European nougats.