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Conifer species
Conifers are a group of seed plants (taxonomically an order, subclass, class, or division), all of which are descended from a common ancestor in the late Paleozoic, more than 300 million years ago, that they do not share with any of the other four living groups of seed plants. The nearly 550 species of conifers are found all around the world (although in differential abundance and prominence), on every continent (except Antarctica), and on many islands. Many conifers are familiar plants, especially those belonging to the most widespread genera: pines (Pinus), firs (Abies), spruces (Picea), and junipers (Juniperus) in the northern hemisphere (Plate 1), and yellowwoods (Podocarpus) in the southern. Taken together, these five genera contain about 300 species, more than half the living conifer species, and occur in almost all the places where any conifers are found. All but about 15 species of conifers are evergreen, even in temperate and colder climates. Most flowering plants are also evergreen (especially those of the tropics and warm temperate regions) but typically are referred to as broad-leaved evergreens to distinguish them from the needle- and scale-leaved conifers. While the majority of conifers have needle-, scale-, or clawlike leaves, a few species have broader leaves that are a far cry from pine needles or juniper scales. Despite some variations, however, their distinctive leaf forms are among the most obvious characteristics uniting the conifers, since most of these forms are shared across the different families.
Bakuchi: Uses, Skin Benefits, Dosage & Side Effects
Bakuchi or Babchi is a powerful skin healing herb.  All parts of the Babchi plant are useful such as roots, stem, leaves, and seeds, but the powder of its seed and the oil are most potent and are renowned to be a highly effective herb for the skin. The seeds of Bakuchi are kidney-shaped, having a bitter taste and a very unpleasant odor. Is babchi/bakuchi grown in india? Babchi oil is a medicinal plant now cultivated in many parts of India because of increasing demand. Earlier it was found in uncultivated areas growing on its own in the monsoon. The seeds are sown in the month of April- May and are harvested at the year-end. All parts of the plants are used to treat various disorders in the human body. It is a folk medicine in India. Babchi Oil Health & Skin Benefits 1. Bakuchi oil for Vitiligo – Bakuchi controls vitiligo spot because it helps in shrinking the white patches, the darker area slowly covers all white skin areas, which leads to visible skin changes due to its Kusthaghna and Rasayana properties. 2. Bakuchi Oil Skin Benefits (disease) – Bakuchi helps to treat various skin problems like itching red papules, itching eruptions, eczema, ringworm, rough and discolored dermatosis, dermatosis with fissures due to its Raktashodaka(Blood Purifier) properties. 3. Indigestion – Bakuchi helps to improve digestion due to its Ushna(hot) potency which promotes digestive fire and digest food quickly. 4. Worm infestation – Bakuchi treats worm infestation due to its Krimighna (anti worms) property. 5. Cough disorders – Bakuchi has the property of balancing Kapha as it has Ushna Virya (hot in Potency) so it can help control asthma, cough, and bronchitis. Babchi oil other benefits · Babchi oil Contains Antioxidant Properties · Babchi Oil Helps to Prevent the Risk of Cancer · Babchi Oil Prevents Respiratory Problems · Babchi Oil Improves Skin Health · Babchi Oil Improves Oral Health · Babchi Oil has Anti-Inflammatory Activity · Babchi Oil Supports Reproductive Health Is Babchi Good For The Skin? Babchi seeds have great medicinal value as per the ancient texts as well as modern science. It helps brighten the skin by visibly reducing pigmentation and plumps the skin by boosting collagen promoting tissues. Babchi powder is used as Lepa or mask, in which its seeds are powdered and mixed with appropriate mixer to make a paste, and applied on affected areas. Difference between Babchi oil & Bakuchiol  Often people confuse between babchi oil and bakuchiol. These are not the two different oils; rather Babchi oil contains a component named bakuchiol in it. Side effects and Precaution While Using Bakuchi The consumption of the Non-purified form of Bakuchi has many side effects such as severe vomiting and nausea. It is recommended not to apply the concentrated Bakuchi oil directly on the skin as it may lead to rashes, significant infections, and allergies. It is observed that the excessive use of Bakuchi leads to skin discolouration. The consumption of Bakuchi is not recommended to pregnant or breastfeeding women. The higher doses of Bakuchi lead to hyperacidity and gastritis
Ait Ben Haddou Kasbah
The ksar, a group of earthen buildings surrounded by high walls, is a traditional pre-Saharan habitat. The houses crowd together within the defensive walls, which are reinforced by corner towers. Ait-Ben-Haddou, in Ouarzazate province, is a striking example of the architecture of southern Morocco. Located in the foothills on the southern slopes of the High Atlas in the Province of Ouarzazate, the site of Ait-Ben-Haddou is the most famous ksar in the Ounila Valley. The Ksar of Aït-Ben-Haddou is a striking example of southern Moroccan architecture. The ksar is a mainly collective grouping of dwellings. Inside the defensive walls which are reinforced by angle towers and pierced with a baffle gate, houses crowd together - some modest, others resembling small urban castles with their high angle towers and upper sections decorated with motifs in clay brick - but there are also buildings and community areas. It is an extraordinary ensemble of buildings offering a complete panorama of pre-Saharan earthen construction techniques. The oldest constructions do not appear to be earlier than the 17th century, although their structure and technique were propagated from a very early period in the valleys of southern Morocco. The site was also one of the many trading posts on the commercial route linking ancient Sudan to Marrakesh by the Dra Valley and the Tizi-n'Telouet Pass. Architecturally, the living quarters form a compact grouping, closed and suspended. The community areas of the ksar include a mosque, a public square, grain threshing areas outside the ramparts, a fortification and a loft at the top of the village, an caravanserai, two cemeteries (Muslim and Jewish) and the Sanctuary of the Saint Sidi Ali or Amer. The Ksar of Ait- Ben-Haddou is a perfect synthesis of earthen architecture of the pre-Saharan regions of Morocco. Criterion (iv): The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou is an eminent example of a ksar in southern Morocco illustrating the main types of earthen constructions that may be observed dating from the 17th century in the valleys of Dra, Todgha, Dadès and Souss. Criterion (v): The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou illustrates the traditional earthen habitat, representing the culture of southern Morocco, which has become vulnerable as a result of irreversible socio-economic and cultural changes Integrity (2009) All the structures comprising the ksar are located within the boundaries of the property and the buffer zone protects its environment. The earthen buildings are very vulnerable due to lack of maintenance and regular repair resulting from the abandonment of the ksar by its inhabitants. The CERKAS (Centre for the conservation and rehabilitation of the architectural heritage of atlas and sub-atlas zones) monitors, with difficulty, respect for the visual integrity of the property. Authenticity (2009) In comparison to other ksour of the region, the Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou has preserved its architectural authenticity with regard to configuration and materials. The architectural style is well preserved and the earthen constructions are perfectly adapted to the climatic conditions and are in harmony with the natural and social environment. The large houses in the lower part of the village, with well conserved decorative motifs, are regularly maintained. The construction materials used still remain earth and wood. The inclination to introduce cement has so far been unsuccessful, thanks to the continued monitoring of the «Comité de contrôle des infractions» (Rural Community, Town Planning Division, Urban Agency, CERKAS). Only a few lintels and reinforced concrete escaped its vigilance, but they have been hidden by earthen rendering. Particular attention is also paid to doors and windows giving on to the lanes, to ensure that the wood is not replaced by metal. Protection and management requirements (2009) Protection measures essentially relate to the different laws for the listing of historic monuments and sites, in particular the Law 22-80 concerning Moroccan heritage. The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou currently has a five-year management plan (2007-2012). This management plan is the result of two years of reflection and workshops involving all the persons and institutions concerned with the future of the site, in particular the local populations. The recommendations of this plan are being implemented. Furthermore, two management committees have been established (a local committee and a national one) in which all the parties are represented and cooperate in decision-making. As well as managing the property, CERKAS ensures coordination in the implementation of this management plan. visit our site for more informations...