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Pinus mugo - Dwarf mountain pine, European mountain pine, Mugo pine, Swiss mountain pine
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern. As this pine is widespread, with a large extent of occurrence (EOO), area of occupancy (AOO) and population, and in most cases occurs in areas where it is not threatened by human activities, and has few significant declines, it is assessed as Least Concern. Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata has a much more limited distribution and is restricted to mid-elevation peat bogs. Habitat loss due to afforestation and drainage has resulted in a reduction in its AOO and this subspecies has been assessed as Endangered. However, as this subspecies represents a relatively small part of the global population of Pinus mugo, the overall assessment for the species does not change. This species has received more names than any other conifer, some of these are still in use especially in eastern Europe. The species has two principal growth forms, commonly recognized as distinct taxa: a shrub-like, sometimes nearly decumbent form (subsp. mugo) and an upright shrub or erect tree (subsp. rotundata), which occupy different habitats. The shrubby form grows on mountain slopes and ridges generally from about 1,000 m to 2,300 m a.s.l. in the mountain ranges of Europe most exposed to storms associated with depression systems in the North Atlantic. Especially in the Carpathians, it forms dense mat-like thickets above montane forests dominated by Fagus or Picea; in the western Alps the upright form (subspecies) dominates on nutrient poor slopes. Pinus mugo in the eastern Alps may have replaced original Larch-Arolla pine woods which were disturbed by human activities and grazing of their animals. The species often occurs on dolomite limestone, but is in fact indifferent to soil type; this prevalence probably has historical reasons. While upright stands of Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata can have fairly rich plant communities, the species associated with the decumbent subsp. mugo are much fewer due to harsh environmental conditions, such as exposure and long-lasting snow cover. Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata occurs mostly in and around peat bogs and its habit, from shrub to upright tree, seems to depend on soil drainage with the low shrub form in wet moor habitat. No significant, range-wide threats have been identified for this species or for Pinus mugo subsp. mugo. Tourist and recreation-related developments (e.g. ski resorts and ski runs) could have some effect at a very localized level and acid rain in the eastern parts of its range may also be a problem (Boratynski et al. 2009). Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata has a more limited distribution than the typical subspecies and is also restricted to peat bogs. Many of these have been drained and afforested with Picea abies. As a result this subspecies has been assessed as Endangered (see Farjon 2013). The shrubby subspecies (mugo) of Dwarf mountain pine has been used in some parts of northern Europe to stabilize drifting sand dunes and as initial shelter belts for plantations with Scots pine in similar sandy areas. In horticulture it is mainly planted in spaces created by roundabouts and other types of road intersection, both in Europe and in the USA. For gardens many cultivars that remain more dwarfish than the subspecies mugo have been and are being selected, and some of these are suitable in larger rock gardens as they grow very slowly. For this reason this species has also been used in bonsai culture. The tree form (subsp. rotundata) is too uncommon and also grows too slowly to be of importance as a timber tree. Its horticultural interest is limited to arboreta, where it is often labelled as a distinct species (Pinus uncinata) and can grow into an erect small tree. Hybrids have been described between subsp. mugo and subsp. rotundata, and such plants may also occasionally be in cultivation. As with other pines, this species produces a resin that has some medicinal uses. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pines is considered antiseptic and diuretic. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic disorders. In the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers it is also used for respiratory complaints such as coughs and colds and a variety of skin problems, such as sores and boils. An essential oil obtained from the young twigs is used medicinally and also in woody perfumeries. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. Pitch could also be obtained from the resin and a tan or green dye obtained from the needles and the wood has reportedly been used to make shoes (Plants for a Future 2014). A herbal tea is also made from the needles in Bulgaria (Frankis and Earle 1999). This species is recorded from more than 50 Natura 2000 protected areas throughout its range (EUNIS 2014), such as the Tatry National Park in Poland. It has been planted ornamentally and it is conserved ex situ in 154 botanic gardens worldwide (BCGI 2013). Seed is conserved in seed banks, such as in Paver, Italy (ENSCO 2014). https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/pinus/pinus-mugo
Qu'est ce que le survivalisme ?
Le survivalisme par définition est un mode de vie qui constitue à une préparation à une éventuelle catastrophe. La préparation des survivants repose principalement sur l'apprentissage des techniques de survie et des concepts médicaux. Avec la bonne préparation, le bon équipement et les bons vêtements avec notre boutique militariat, vous pouvez survivre à la forêt ou prévenir les catastrophes. L'origine du survivalisme a commencé avec l'herbertisme. Il s'agit d'un événement pour former l'officier de marine Georges Hébert. Le but de cette activité est de devenir puissant et utile. Pour ce faire, il est nécessaire de réaliser une éducation sportive, nature et utilitaire. Aux États-Unis dans les années 1960, l'inflation et la dépréciation ont incité les gens à adopter l'idée de kits de sauvetage. À partir des années 1970, certains livres sur le mot « survie » et les méthodes appropriées ont commencé à paraître. Kurt Saxon sera le premier à utiliser le terme "survivaliste". Cependant, John Pugsley publiera "Strategy Alpha" dans les années 1980. Ce livre est devenu une référence pour les survivalistes américains. Dans les années 1990, le mythe du bug du millénaire a donné un nouvel élan au mouvement survivaliste. Les divers événements catastrophiques de 2000 à nos jours continuent d'alimenter la peur et de stimuler la motivation survivaliste. La survie est parfois liée aux croyances religieuses. Être préparé signifie parfois commencer un long voyage avec la famille, les amis et les voisins, mais parfois le voyage doit être commencé seul. Ne pas se préparer, bien ou mal, à l'effondrement imminent, souvent appelé survivalisme. En revanche, il peut y avoir rupture plus ou moins normale. Ils dépendent de l'âge, du sexe, du lieu de résidence, de la formation précédente, des personnes accompagnantes, du matériel disponible... Ainsi, notre magasin survivaliste a pour objectif de regrouper au même endroit du matériel utile et de qualité, et à un prix abordable, dans le respect des grandes règles des survivalistes : eau, alimentation, énergie, hygiène/santé, défense, et blog Connaissances. Par conséquent, nous ne parlerons pas d'invasion extraterrestre...
Pinus durangensis - Durango pine, Pino blanco, Pino real (Spanish)
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened The large extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy based on comprehensive locality sampling and a grid width of 10 km because this is a forest forming species, both place it outside a threatened category. However, exploitation has reduced formerly “extensive pure forests in Durango and southern Chihuahua… to only scattered, open stands over most of its range” (Perry 1991). It is therefore listed as Near Threatened as it nearly meets the criteria A2cd; B2ab(ii,iii,v) for listing as threatened. Although this decline has not ceased there is insufficient data to allocate one of the threatened categories. The change in status since the previous assessment of Least Concern, can therefore be seen as a genuine recent change. Populations have been substantially reduced within the last 25 years due to exploitation, fires and forest clearance. The decline is ongoing. In the Sierra Madre this species is an important constituent of the 'yellow pine' forest, where it occurs in pure stands or mixed with several other species of pine, e.g. Pinus arizonica, Pinus leiophylla, and Pinus engelmannii, or in pine-oak forests. This pine is adapted to grow on shallow, rocky soils, but its better stands are found on deeper soils, where it can successfully compete with most other pines. The soils are mostly derived from volcanic rock. At the highest elevation Pinus durangensis occurs with Abies and/or Cupressus lusitanica, at the lowest with Juniperus deppeana and Pinus oocarpa. Other pines are Pinus montezumae, Pinus teocote and in the southern part of its range Pinus ayacahuite can occur with it. In addition this species is associated with Quercus sideroxyla, Quercus rugosa, Pinus ayacahuite and Pseudotsuga (Garcia and Gonzalez 2003). Durango pine is an important timber tree. It grows straight and tall and is (or was) abundant and wide spread in many areas within its range. Logging from natural stands at the current rate is unsustainable and plantations are now being attempted in the state of Durango. The timber is used for construction such as roof beams, general carpentry, furniture, floors, and plywood. This species is virtually unknown in horticulture. https://conifersgarden.com/rare-conifers/pinus-durangensis