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Heart Murmur: Causes, Characteristics & Treatment

What is a Heart Murmur?

As the name suggests, a heart murmur refers to irregular sounds in the heartbeat cycle. This condition causes the heart to make swishing or whooshing sounds as it beats. The sound results from irregular blood turbulence in the heart. Doctors usually use a stethoscope to listen to the heart for murmurs. A healthy heart makes consistent, two-part thumping sounds when the heart valves open and close, but a murmur interrupts the pattern.
Like other cardiac disorders, patients may have a heart murmur from birth or they may develop the symptom later in life. On its own, it may not be a cause for concern. However, it may signal a more serious underlying medical condition. A heart murmur is often the first sign that a patient has another condition that affects the heart valves.

Characteristics of Heart Murmurs

Innocent Heart Murmurs
With this type of heart murmur, patients have a healthy, normal-functioning heart. But blood flows through the heart faster than normal, making a different sound than a normal heartbeat. Innocent heart murmurs are also called functional or physiologic murmurs. They are common in infants and children, but they usually disappear by the time they reach adulthood. There is no underlying health condition.
Abnormal Heart Murmurs
This type is more serious. Usually, they are the result of congenital heart disease in children or acquired heart valve problems in adults. An innocent heart murmur does not cause any other symptoms, but an abnormal heart murmur may have an underlying heart problem that does cause symptoms:
Rapid breathing
Difficulty feeding (in children)
Weight gain
Blue lips or fingertips
Failure to thrive
Fatigue
Dizziness or fainting
Swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, liver, neck veins or stomach
Difficulty with exercise or physical activity
Shortness of breath
Measuring Heart Murmurs
Doctors use a stethoscope to examine heart murmurs by assessing the heart’s timing, duration, tonal quality and pitch. There are two main types: systolic and diastolic. In a systolic heart murmur, the swishing sound occurs between the first and second sound. On the other hand, diastolic murmurs happen after the second sound.
Doctors describe the timing as early systolic, mid-systolic or late systolic. Duration refers to how long the abnormal sounds occur between heartbeats. For instance, holosystolic murmurs occur throughout systole. Heart murmurs can also be described using pitch — low, medium or high.
There are various classifications to describe the shape of a heart murmur, including crescendo and decrescendo. The former refers to a heart murmur that increases in intensity, while the latter describes one that decreases in intensity.

Causes of Heart Murmurs

Innocent Heart Murmurs
Innocent heart murmurs occur when blood moves much more rapidly through the heart than normally. They occur without any underlying medical condition. Innocent murmurs may be caused by:
Pregnancy
Intense physical activity
Infection
Hyperthyroidism
Innocent heart murmurs may disappear over time or they may last an entire lifetime without causing any adverse health effects. However, abnormal heart murmurs are associated with another condition.
Congenital Heart Defects
One common cause of heart murmurs in babies and children is congenital heart defects or problems with the structure of the heart. Congenital defects are present at birth.
Septal Defects
In a septal defect, the patient has a hole between the right and left sides of the heart. The severity depends on their size and location. It causes abnormalities in blood flow between the heart chambers and heart vessels, causing irregular sounds in heartbeat.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Before birth, a fetus’ heart has a channel called a ductus arteriosus. The channel links the pulmonary artery and the aorta, which enables blood to bypass the lungs because the fetus does not breathe yet. However, the channel usually closes after birth and the infant starts breathing on its own. In some cases, the ductus arteriosus does not close and continues to function after birth, causing abnormal blood flow.
Heart Valve Abnormalities
Even though these abnormalities are present at birth, they may not be discovered until later in life. An example of a congenital heart valve abnormality is aortic valve stenosis, a condition that causes constricted valves that do not let enough blood through them. In other cases, the heart valves may not close correctly and then leak blood. This condition is called regurgitation.
Aortic Valve Calcification
As patients age, calcium may accumulate on the heart valves, causing them to thicken. Thickened valves are more narrow and make it difficult for blood to flow through, causing heart murmurs.
Endocarditis
Patients may also have heart murmurs from an infection on the inner lining of the heart or valve, called endocarditis. The infection may develop from bacteria or other microorganisms that travel from other parts of the body — such as the mouth — and into the heart. Untreated, the infection can damage the heart valves.
Rheumatic Fever
Although this condition is rare, it may occur in patients who do not seek quick medical attention for strep throat infection. Rheumatic fever that spreads to the heart can cause permanent damage to the heart valves and interfere with normal blood flow in the heart, which can trigger heart murmurs.
Cardiac Myxoma
Rarely, benign non-cancerous tumors can grow inside the heart and obstruct blood flow. This condition often leads to a heart murmur.
Risk Factors for Heart Murmurs
Family History of Cardiac Disorders
According to research, the likelihood of a heart murmur increases if a patient’s relatives exhibit a history of cardiac disorders.
Underlying Health Conditions
Other medical conditions may elevate the risk of an abnormal heart murmur. For example, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, carcinoid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus may trigger a heart murmur.
Pregnancy
An infant is more likely to have a heart murmur after birth if the mother had a medical illness during pregnancy, such as rubella (German measles) or diabetes. In addition, taking certain medications, drinking alcohol and using illicit drugs during pregnancy can increase the risk of congenital cardiac defects.

Diagnosing Heart Murmurs

Physicians diagnose a heart murmur with a physical exam. The doctor uses a stethoscope to listen to the heartbeat, measuring the murmur’s volume, pitch, location, timing and length. This way, the physician can identify if the murmur is innocent or abnormal and if the patient has any other signs of heart problems. However, in some cases the patient may need additional tests to gather more information. Other diagnostic tests include an electrocardiogram, chest X-rays, echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization.

Treating & Preventing Heart Murmurs

Treatment for a heart murmur depends on the underlying cause. If the condition is innocent, the patient does not require treatment because it is not associated with any health condition. The patient has a normal heart structure and the symptom does not raise any concerns. It may even disappear on its own.
The murmur itself does not need treatment. However, if it signals another heart condition, the patient may require treatment for that, depending on the cause and any other symptoms. Treatment options include surgery, medication or a valve replacement procedure.
Medication
Depending on the condition that causes the heart murmur, a doctor may prescribe different medications. If the patient has high blood pressure, they may take ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to regulate it. Anticoagulants can help prevent blood clots and statins can help lower cholesterol and keep heart problems from getting worse. The patient may also take diuretics to eliminate excess water and salt from the body and make it easier for the heart to pump blood.
Surgery
If medications do not solve the problem on their own, the patient may need a surgical procedure to address the cause of the murmur. A doctor may perform an annuloplasty, balloon valvuloplasty, structural support repair or valve leaflet repair.
Valve Replacement
The patient may also need a valve replacement procedure, such as open heart surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). An open heart surgery removes the damaged valve and replaces it with an artificial one. The artificial valve is either made of metal or tissue from a human donor. However, TAVR is a less invasive procedure. The doctor makes an incision in a vein in the leg or the chest to install the artificial valve.

Supplements for Heart Health

In addition to medical treatment, patients may also increase and maintain heart health with dietary supplements. They may provide a number of benefits to cardio health. However, they are not a medical treatment and may not be safe for all patients. Always consult a doctor before taking supplements.

Magnesium 
Magnesium promotes oral and immune health, as well as cardiac health by regulating blood pressure. It may also be able to help prevent a congenital heart murmur by promoting healthy pregnancies. It can prevent eclamptic seizures and protect the heart from high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can cause serious complications. Medical researchers also state that magnesium can help treat an irregular heartbeat. The mineral supports a wide range of bodily reactions to keep the bones, heart, muscles and nerves healthy. Leafy vegetables, whole grains, nuts and yogurt are all rich in magnesium. However, sometimes people do not get enough of it through the diet, so supplements are another option.
The recommended dosage for magnesium citrate powder is 4,400 mg (1 ½ tsp) daily mixed with liquids. Consult a doctor for approval. Magnesium is generally safe in proper doses. However, side effects may include indigestionnausea, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. It is likely safe for pregnancy and breastfeeding in smaller doses. It may not be safe for patients with bleeding disorders, kidney problems, heart block, immune diseases or inflammatory bowel disease.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Fatty acids make up the fat in the body and in food. There are several different types of fatty acids and omega 3-6-9 are three of them. Omega-3 fatty acids are responsible for lowering triglyceride levels. High triglyceride levels can increase the risk for heart disease. It can also help reduce inflammation in the body, which causes diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and arthritis. Omega-6 fatty acids can help reduce inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and omega-9 fatty acids can help reduce cholesterol and lower blood pressure.
There are food sources that include fatty acids — walnuts, fatty fish, corn, eggs, avocado, olive oil — but supplements are also available to ensure a fixed, consistent dosage. The supplement contains a wide range of oils rich in essential fatty acids. It may promote cardiac health and help minimize inflammation in the body. Take three omega 3-6-9 softgels once or twice daily, with a doctor’s approval. However, some patients may develop side effects such as bloating, burping and upset stomach. Contact a doctor if it causes itching, swelling or a rash.
Vitamin D
This product promotes cardiac health by regulating the hormone that controls calcium consumption and absorption. Another significant benefit is its easy absorption into the body. Lack of vitamin D in the body is associated with various health complications, including osteomalacia and osteoporosis. In addition to calcium, it also helps the body absorb magnesium and supports metabolic processes with vitamin A.
Though it has many different benefits, vitamin D may be toxic in large amounts. Therefore, it’s important to carefully measure the right proportions. Avoid using this product without an accurate milligram scale. Overdose may cause irritability, irregular heartbeat, weight loss, nausea, constipationseizures and weak muscles. The healthy serving portion for vitamin D3 supplements is 50 mg per day, unless a physician advises against it.
Coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) 
Coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) is a strong antioxidant that boosts energy levels and ensures cardiac health. It has a long history as a medical treatment for heart problems. COQ10 occurs in almost all cells in the body and rid the body of free radical damage. It may also help regulate blood pressure and benefit patients with heart failure, coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis, according to research.
Food sources include heart, liver, kidney, fish, dairy, nuts and seeds, cauliflower, broccoli and sweet potato. COQ10 is also available as a supplement. For best results, take this product in conjunction with a healthy diet and exercise for muscle, skin, bone, brain, immune and heart health. The recommended serving size for coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) powder is between 50 and 200 mg per day. Make sure to use an accurate milligram scale and always consult a doctor before taking this supplement.
L-Citrulline 
Athletes often use L-citrulline as a supplement to increase performance. However, it may also regulate blood pressure and strengthen the immune system. It reduces blood vessel dilation, which helps control blood flow and prevents excess pressure. Studies state that it may also help boost the immune system because it acts as a neutrophil, a type of white blood cell that fights infection. This may be beneficial for heart murmurs because they can develop from an infection.
The recommended dosage for L-citrulline powder is 3,000 mg (1 tsp) per day, unless a doctor recommends a different dosage. Most likely, this product does not cause adverse side effects in the correct dosage. However, patients who are pregnant or nursing should avoid this supplement and so should patients with a history of liver or kidney problems.

The Bottom Line

Heart murmurs are a symptom that causes a heart irregularity that makes swishing sounds between the regular two-part heartbeat. There are two types of heart murmurs: innocent and abnormal. The former occurs without any specific cause. They are common in infants and children and may disappear as the patient ages. On the other hand, the latter signals another problem in the heart. The murmur itself does not require treatment, but the underlying heart condition might.
There are various factors that may cause a heart murmur, including congenital heart defects, cardiac infections, high blood pressure, valve calcification or rheumatic fever. Some patients do not have any symptoms other than the murmur, but others may experience others. Common symptoms of a heart murmur include general weakness, fatigue, fainting, chest pain, shortness of breath and swelling in the body.
If the patient requires treatment, a doctor may prescribe medication or perform surgery or a valve replacement procedure. Dietary supplements may also help patients maintain a healthy cardiovascular system and avoid heart problems. However, they are not an effective medical cure on their own. But paired with other treatment options and a doctor’s permission, supplements may benefit a patient’s overall health.
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3 Ways To Lose Weight Safely
You will be hungry or unsatisfied even after trying many different eating tactics.These are some of the primary reasons why sticking to a better eating plan may be difficult. If you are wondering how to lose weight fast, not all diets, however, have this impact. Reduce your intake of processed carbohydrates. One way to lose weight quickly is to cut back on sugars and starches, or carbs.This could be accomplished by following a low-carb diet or substituting whole grains for processed carbohydrates. As a result, your appetite will diminish, and you will consume fewer calories. If you follow a low-carb diet, you'll get your energy from stored fat rather than carbs. You'll reap the benefits of increased fibre and slower digestion if you combine eating more complex carbs like whole grains with a calorie deficit. This makes them more filling, ensuring your satisfaction. Focus on protein, fat, and vegetables. Each of your meals should have a source of protein, a source of fat, vegetables, and a small amount of complex carbohydrates Get up and move around. While physical activity is not essential to reduce weight, it can help. There are various advantages to lifting weights.Lifting weights will help you burn a lot of calories and prevent your metabolism from slowing down, which is a typical weight-loss side effect. Last but not least Eating more fiber-rich foods, particularly viscous fibre, can be an effective weight-loss method.However, like many other weight-loss treatments, it won't last unless you combine it with a long-term lifestyle modification.
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How A Breast Lift Surgery Improves Your Quality Of Life And Self Esteem
Has pregnancy or significant weight loss caused sagging or loose skin in your breasts? Do sagging breasts cause skin irritation? Do you mind your breasts' appearance (due to age-related volume loss)? In this case, a breast lift may be beneficial. This procedure rejuvenates your breasts by repositioning your skin, nipple, and areola. Aside from cosmetic concerns, a breast lift may help with a variety of health issues. What exactly is a breast lift surgery? A breast lift, or “mastopexy,” elevates the nipple and areola. It also removes excess skin and tightens remaining breast tissues, addressing sagging and droopy breasts. If your areola is too big for your breasts, the procedure can fix that too! Why Do Breasts Sag? Breasts can change shape due to age, breastfeeding, and other factors. Underlying health issue Genetics Pregnancy Weight changes Breast Lift Benefits Reverse Breast Sagging Breast ptosis means drooping or sagging breasts. This condition can cause physical, emotional, and cosmetic issues. Fortunately, a breast lift surgery in Mumbai can help. The effects of breast lift on women with significant drooping were studied. Women who had abreast lift surgery between 2002 and 2016 were included. After surgery, patients were asked to rate their experience. The majority of patients reported not only an improvement in breast sagging but also high levels of satisfaction. Another study examined the effects of breast lift on women who had sagging breasts augmented. A questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction four years after surgery. The researchers found that breast lifts are safe and provide satisfactory long-term results. Most patients liked their breast shape, size, and symmetry. A third study examined the long-term effects of breast lift surgery on sagging breasts. Patients' before and after photos were taken as well as standardised breast measurements. Following surgery, patients reported increased overall satisfaction and upper pole fullness. Self Confidence Sagging breasts not only cause physical discomfort but also lower self-esteem. This condition limits clothing options and social interaction. A breast lift may help you regain your self-esteem. In one study, researchers evaluated patients' psychological health after cosmetic breast surgery. A 12-item short-form health survey was given to breast lift patients four times: immediately after surgery, one, six, and twelve months later. During this time, patients' self-esteem grew. Anxiety and depression symptoms decreased. From 2002 to 2016, researchers found that 85.6% of patients' self-esteem improved after having consecutive breast lifts. Patients were more satisfied with their results and less sagging of the breasts. Another study examined the psychological effects of various breast lift techniques on sagging women. One month after surgery, the patients' self-esteem improved, according to questionnaires and in-person interviews. The researchers concluded that this improvement was linked to increased satisfaction and decreased physical discomfort after surgery. Better Life Quality Several studies show that breast lift can improve patients' quality of life. This improvement is due to several factors, including body image. Physical aches and pains are gone. Also, it boosts self-esteem. A study compared patients who had breast augmentation with implants to those who had a breast lift. Both patient groups completed a 47-question survey about their post-operative quality of life. The responses were then returned via return mail to the authors. These two groups were pleased with the overall cosmetic outcome, including enlargement and symmetry. A study assessing the effects of combining breast augmentation and breast lift on patients' quality of life discovered an improvement in various aspects of surgery. Patients were pleased with the symmetry correction, scar quality, breast shape, nipple/areola size, and overall result, according to patient satisfaction surveys. A study comparing the effects of various breast lift techniques on patients with sagging breasts found significant improvements in quality of life. After surgery, patients were interviewed in person for six categories. Over the course of this study, the researchers assessed patients' medical and psychological conditions. Less nipple numbness and improved self-esteem were reported by patients. Thus, people's lives have improved. Would a Breast Lift Help? During your initial consultation, your plastic surgeon will examine your health to determine your candidacy for surgery. To design a treatment plan that meets your specific cosmetic and health needs. Large, heavy breasts are a good candidate for mastopexy in Mumbai. The lift is often combined with the reduction. You can benefit from a breast lift if you are troubled by: Low set breasts. Nipples pointing down. Stretched areola. Sagging and deflated breasts. One breast is higher than the other. Your outlook is positive and realistic. You are in good mental and physical health.
12 Questions About Breast Lift Surgery Answered By A Plastic Surgeon
Are you experiencing sagging or loose skin in your breasts as a result of pregnancy or significant weight loss? Are you prone to irritation of the skin as a result of sagging breasts? Are you concerned about the appearance of your breasts (as a result of volume loss associated with ageing)? If this is the case, a breast lift procedure may be beneficial. This procedure repositions your skin, nipple, and areola to restore your youthful breasts. Apart from cosmetic concerns, a substantial body of clinical evidence suggests that a breast lift may benefit a variety of health problems. What Exactly Is a Breast Lift? A breast lift, alternatively referred to as a "mastopexy," is a surgical procedure that raises the nipple and areola. Additionally, it corrects breast sagging and drooping by removing excess skin and tightening the remaining breast tissues. If your areola is not proportionate to the size of your breasts, the procedure may reduce its size. How long do the effects of a Breast Lift last? The outcome of the procedure may vary from patient to patient. This will depend on a variety of variables, including the following: How you care for your newly formed breasts The surgical procedure that was performed Your age The anticipated outcome Your eating habits Elasticity of your skin In most cases, the effects of a breast lift last up to two years. However, because the procedure cannot reverse the effects of ageing on the breasts, you may require additional surgery to maintain the results. Prior to the procedure, your cosmetic surgeon will conduct an examination of your overall health to ensure long-term results. Does a breast lift result in an increase in cup size? The procedure does not alter the shape of the breasts; rather, it realigns the skin, nipple, and areola. As a result, the breast contour appears younger and more defined. If you want to increase the size of your breasts, you may benefit from a surgical procedure called breast augmentation or breast lift with implants. This procedure enhances the appearance and size of your breasts by using implants or your own body fat. Can I discontinue wearing a bra following a breast lift? No, your surgeon will instruct you to wear a special bra or compression garments following surgery to help reduce swelling and support your breasts as they heal. Indeed, your surgeon will likely advise you to wear a support bra following surgery. This also allows time for your breasts to adjust to their new shape. How is a lollipop breast lift performed? The lollipop lift is a surgical procedure reserved for patients with breasts of average size. This is accomplished by cutting around the areola, which runs down the centre of the lower breast and resembles a lollipop on a stick. These incisions will be used by your plastic surgeon to elevate the breast and reposition the nipple and areola into the desired position. After repositioning the skin, your surgeon will tighten and secure it with sutures. With this surgical technique, scarring is minimal. However, because your surgeon will be working with a small incision, it will be challenging to perform. What is ananchor breast lift? An anchor lift, also known as a standard breast lift, entails creating an inverted anchor-shaped cut around the perimeter of your areola that runs down to the breast crease and horizontally along the breast crease. This procedure is recommended for patients who require extensive skin and breast tissue removal. However, this surgical technique is quite invasive and carries a higher risk of undesirable scarring. Is it possible to lose weight following a breast lift? Excess skin is removed during the procedure to firm and define your breasts. However, it does not remove a large amount of skin or tissue, resulting in noticeable weight loss. Are Breast Implants needed in a breast lift? Breast lifts are performed without the use of implants to enhance the appearance of your breasts. Rather than that, your surgeon will reposition the existing breast tissue, nipple, and areola to create the appearance of younger, more defined breasts. Breast augmentation is a procedure that involves the placement of implants in the breasts. In some instances, breast augmentation can be combined with a mastopexy in Mumbai to achieve the most optimal and long-lasting results. Does breast lift surgery reduce the size of the areola? Yes, surgery can help reduce the size of enlarged areolas caused by sagging breasts. To achieve optimal cosmetic results, the majority of patients who undergo a breast lift require areola reduction. During your initial consultation, your surgeon will determine whether areola reduction is necessary for your breast condition. How is a breast lift different from breast implant surgery? A breast lift aims to enhance the shape and symmetry of your existing breasts by reshaping and lifting them for a more youthful appearance and contour. Breast implants, on the other hand, increase the volume of your breasts to increase their size, but they do not alter the placement of your breasts. Breast lifts and breast implants are frequently used in conjunction to achieve the best and most durable results. How much does a breast lift cost? Naturally, the cost of a breast lift surgery in Mumbai is dependent on a variety of factors, including the following: Your surgery's supplies and equipment The medical facility's or clinic's cost Anesthetist's fee Assistant surgeon's fee Your breasts' condition Your desired results Additionally, the surgeon's fee. It is critical to keep in mind that each treatment plan is customised to your unique health and cosmetic needs, as well as desired outcomes. As a result, total fees may vary between patients. Additionally, you should understand that a breast lift is a cosmetic procedure. In other words, the procedure is performed to enhance the appearance of the breasts. Your health insurance will not cover this procedure. Is it possible to avoid scarring following a breast lift? The majority of patients are so pleased with the results of their breast lift that they are unconcerned about the appearance of their surgical scars. Many patients discover that the benefits of breast lift surgery in Mumbai outweigh the potential for scarring. However, it is natural for patients to be concerned about the appearance of scars following complete healing of surgical incisions. The truth is that visible signs of breast lift surgery are possible. Your scars, on the other hand, should fade and lighten in appearance over time. To achieve minimal scarring, most surgeons make small, inconspicuous breast incisions during the procedure. During your initial consultation, we will discuss the surgical technique and incision placement in detail.
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