The gorgeous garden near the heart of Yogyakarta has gone by many names in its long history. Taman Sari was once known as 'the water castle' because it has several bathing pools and a beautiful artificial lake. Thanks to its numerous fragrant flower plants, it was also referred to as 'the perfumed garden'. Located close to the city center - about 500 meters from the Yogyakarta Sultanate Palace - it was built in 1758, during the government of Prince Mangkubumi, the first sultan of Yogyakarta Palace. Around 1765 to 1812, it was used as a private royal garden, exclusively for the king and his relatives. In addition to its main function as a recreational area for the king, Taman Sari also served as a fort or bunker for the king and his relatives in the event of an attack. Currently one of the city's most popular tourist destinations, these days everyone can enjoy Taman Sari's architecture –an elegant combination of European, Javanese and Chinese style decorated with Hindu and Islamic ornaments. According to several stories at least part of the construction had been the work of a Portuguese builder, who was given the title Demang Tegis. Unfortunately, not all the magnificent buildings of Taman Sari have remained intact to this day, but there are still many areas for visitors to explore, such as the hidden underground halls and chambers. Visitors usually flock to Pasiraman Umbul Winangun, which is comprised of two large pools where the king's wife and concubines used to bathe and one smaller pool dedicated to the Sultan himself. South of the Pasiraman is a tower where the Sultan used to observe his wives bathing at the pool. The tower has rooms dedicated for the royal family’s various pampering needs. Visitors who venture to the northern part of the grounds between the narrow alleys of Taman Sari will discover an old building with several giant windows named Pasangrahan Pulau Kenanga, which is known as a sacred place for meditation. Entering the garden's underground hallways, one will encounter a structure called Sumur Gumuling. The circular-shaped building with a large void in the middle was once used as a mosque. At the center of this building is a unique elevated platform with five stairways leading to it. Clusters of art and craft centers are located in the small alleys of Taman Sari, offering goods such as batik fabrics, wayang (traditional puppets), sculptures and paintings. The small, relaxing cafes, also in the alleys, are a welcomed addition especially when one explores Taman Sari on a particularly hot day.