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How to Increase Immunity at Home During COVID-19 Pandemic

What to Follow During Lockdown Period to Boost Immunity System? The best ways to improve your immunity system and fight the COVID-19 during the lockdown period are sleeping well, staying hydrated, and eating healthily. https://bit.ly/2YHiGtC
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Principles regulating clinical trials worldwide
Clinical research training Clinical research training programs are designed for clinicians and scientists around the world. These research training programs provide advanced training in healthcare methods and research. The training often incorporates in-person seminars and dynamic workshops. It focuses on enhancing clinicians’ and staff skills, knowledge, and ability at every phase of the research, particularly for pre-clinical research phases. The training includes writing grant proposals and launching new projects for analyzing data and presenting their clinical results. . Take the Best Training in Clinical Research. Principles regulating clinical trials worldwide Clinical trials are required to follow the following guidelines and more to ensure the safety of patients and efficacy of tests and treatments. However, stringent requirements may force clinical trials to shift to low-income and middle-income countries depriving the local population of the opportunity to benefit from international clinical research. ● Obtaining clear, transparent, and informed consent from participants. ● Allowing participants to withdraw at any point of time from a clinical trial. ● The outcome of the clinical research should provide benefits to society without doing any harm to the participants who volunteered to participate in the clinical trial. ● Any unintended response to a drug or medical product should be considered an adverse reaction. ● A declaration of confirmation by the auditor that an audit has been conducted. ● The auditor should provide a written evaluation of the results of the audit. ● A written description of a clinical trial or study. ● Report of placebo or any investigational product if used in the clinical trial. ● The ethical and moral obligation to protect patients and reap clinical research benefits. . Take Clinical Research Course from the Best. The conclusions derived from the results of a clinical trial conducted worldwide generally apply to all study centers and countries. It increases the pace of drug development and facilitates the approval process of the tests and treatments in foreign markets. However, clinical trials face several challenges that they should overcome to ensure optimal conduct and coordinate clinical trial sites that operate under different regulations, technical, cultural, and political conditions. Clinical trial sponsors are responsible for obtaining consensus among clinical experts and regulatory agencies regarding fundamental questions that include a consistent diagnosis.
WHO’s International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP)
People from more than one country and one medical or research institution can participate in a clinical trial. Different countries have different clinical research requirements, so one clinical trial may be enlisted on more than one registry. That clinical trial shall appear on the database of more than one registry. However, data on various clinical trial registries varies. . Take Clinical Research Course from the Best. The International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) is a global initiative by WHO, responsible for linking clinical trial registers worldwide for ensuring a single point of access and the apparent identification of clinical trials. This was done with the view that participants, patients, families, and patient groups have easy access to information. The ICTRP was established with the aim to make information about all clinical trials that involve humans publicly available. It also aims to achieve the following: ● Improving the comprehensiveness, completeness, and accuracy of registered clinical trials data; ● Communicating and raising awareness of the need for registering clinical trials; ● Ensuring the accessibility of registered data; ● Building capacity for clinical trial registration; ● Encouraging the utilization of registered data; and ● Ensuring the sustainability of the ICTRP. . Take the Best Training in Clinical Research. The Secretariat of the ICTRP is housed by the World Health Organization in its headquarters in Geneva and is responsible for the following: ● Publishes the ICTRP search portal: A database and website that makes it possible for every person in the world to search for free data provided by clinical trial registries around the world. The data is updated weekly and meets WHO’s criteria for content and quality. ● Supports the WHO registry network: A forum created to establish and work together for the purpose of clinical trial registries. It aims to establish best practices for clinical trial registration and the collection of high-quality, accurate data. ● Supports different countries and regions: It aims to establish clinical trial registries or policies on trial registration.
Childhood Leukemia
Leukemia — Cancer of blood is called Leukemia. It develops in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft inner part of the bone (such as thigh and hip bone) where new RBC, WBC & Platelets are formed. As we know, bone marrow also produces WBC or Leucocytes. As soon as the number of mature WBC is enough, then the body sends a signal to stop new cells’ formation. But in Leukemia, these newly formed cells stay immature for a long time. Consequently, the body cannot send any signal, so new cells form inside the bone marrow. The bone marrow becomes crowded with immature and abnormal WBC. Childhood Leukemia — Children of the age group of a newborn child to a 19-year-old. According to a study conducted in 2018, 29% of cancer in children is of childhood leukemia. The most common Leukemia in children is ALL (Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) and AML (Acute myeloid leukemia). Early Symptoms of Childhood Leukemia a. Dull or pale skin b. Weakness or feeling of tiredness c. Headaches and Dizziness d. Trouble in breathing e. Fever and frequent infection f. Bleeding gums or nosebleeds Types of Childhood Leukemia: Leukemia typically in kids can be categorized into two major types. A. Common types of Leukemia a. Acute lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphocytic Leukemia is fast-growing Leukemia of lymphoid cells. This type is widespread in kids; it’s the proliferation of B and T cells lymphocyte precursor. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) accounts for 75–85% of cases of childhood leukemia. b. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML): AML is also a common type of childhood leukemia. This is the fast-growing Leukemia of myeloid cells. B. Rare types of Leukemia a. Hybrid or mixed-lineage Leukemia: This is chromosome-related Leukemia where part of chromosome 11 translocates to any other chromosome. Children having mixed-lineage Leukemia have a poor prognosis. b. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: This is slow-growing Leukemia of myeloid cells. c. Chronic lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): CLL is very rare in children. This is the slow-growing Leukemia of lymphoid cells. d. Juvenile myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML): This is a scarce type of childhood leukemia where WBC production in bone marrow is severely dysregulated. Diagnosis of Childhood Leukemia There are various tests to diagnose and confirm childhood leukemia. These tests also help in classifying the type of Leukemia. The initial tests include: a) Blood tests to measure the number of blood cells and see how they appear. b) Biopsy and Bone marrow aspiration test: To confirm Leukemia, a tissue sample is usually taken from the pelvic bone. c) Spinal Tap test or Lumbar puncture: This test is done to know the spread of cancer cells in the fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) present in the spinal cord or brain. These tests also determine the method of treatment to be followed. Risk factors of Childhood Leukemia More study is needed to explore the possible reasons, but few of them are environmental factors like exposure to radiation, smoking, genetic factors, inherited problems related to immune systems, etc. Treatment of Childhood Leukemia: Once the oncologist confirms the diagnosis, the child will undergo chemotherapy medicines. In highly developed countries, the cure rate for ALL (Acute lymphoblastic leukemia) is more than 80–90%, and for acute myeloid Leukemia, it is more than 60–70%. In developing countries, poor accessibility or affordability, malnutrition, poor tolerability to treatment, and delayed diagnosis bring down the cure rate to almost 70% in ALL and around 50% in AML. a) Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses powerful chemicals and is done to target and kill cancerous cells. Chemotherapy works throughout the body. b) Blood Transfusion: This is a process of transferring healthy blood components into a patient’s blood circulation system intravenously. This process helps in replacing red blood cells, platelets, and other blood components. c) Radiation Therapy: This is also known as Radiotherapy or RT or XRT. This therapy uses a beam of ionizing radiation to kill the cancer cells. d) Bone Marrow Transplant: BMT is performed to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow. In this process, blood stem cells are transplanted into the circulation. Later on, these blood stem cells reach the bone marrow area to produce and promote new blood cells. Treatment of Relapsing Leukemia Despite chemotherapy, around 20% of ALL and about 40–50% of AML can come back with the disease within two to five years of initial diagnosis. This reoccurrence of infection is called relapse. Again, these children will go through a similar test like complete blood count, bone marrow evaluation to confirm the deterioration. After confirmation, they will have to undergo a higher dose of chemotherapy of a different combination or Bone Marrow Transplant. You can consult a well-experienced oncologist, or you can consult online on consultancy websites like Practo, DoctoriDuniya, etc. At DoctoriDuniya, You can book an appointment online with an oncologist or cancer specialist 24X7, with eOPd and an e-prescription facility. The cancer doctor may ask about the family history of the problem and symptoms associated with the disease. At DoctoriDuniya, you can download DoctoriDuniya — Free Medical App and create your online Personal Medical Account called NAINI. Here you can avail free follow-ups and online doctor consultation with oncologist or cancer specialist at NAINI.