Cards you may also be interested in
Prolectin-M: First Oral Antiviral Class of Drug to Block SARS-CoV-2 Entry
In order to truly grasp the magnitude of the finding in this latest journal article about blocking SARS-CoV-2 entry, the audience needs to first understand the mechanism of action (MOA) of the different types of antivirals. The classic definition of an antiviral is a drug that interferes with the replication process of the virus once it has entered the host cell. All antiviral drugs like Paxlovid, Molnupiravir, Remdesivir, Bemnifosbuvir, Bequinar, Tollovir, and Tempol ultimately interfere with the replication process inside the cell at least via one mechanism. The other school of thought is to keep the virus outside the cell and prevent it from entering. This subset of antiviral drugs is called an entry inhibitor. All viruses need help getting inside a host cell and what viruses can do is actually trick the cell into opening up the door to let them in. The primary entry receptor in SARS-CoV-2 is the ACE2 receptor along with TMPRSS as an essential primer. The idea behind entry inhibitors is to block the cellular receptors making docking with the cell impossible. Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Entry: Current and Future Opportunities Another way to stop cellular entry is to simply bind with the spike protein. This is actually the primary function of neutralizing antibodies. Antibody formation is the immune system’s typical response to viral or bacterial infection that prevents cellular entry. Monoclonal antibodies from Regeneron, Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca, and GSK/Vir Biotechnology were developed to attach to the tip of the spike protein. Not only did these monoclonal antibodies prevent the virus from entering the cell, but it also marked the viral particle for destruction by the immune systems phagocytes. Monoclonal antibodies are not only expensive to produce, but also very vulnerable to viral mutations leading to immune escape whereby the antibody might be able to attach to the virus but it cannot neutralize it and prevent cellular entry. With the advent of the latest BA.5 variant, the utility of the vaccines to neutralize infection is over based on a recent NEJM article. Vaccinated, unvaccinated, and people with immunity from prior infection are all vulnerable to the latest BA.5 variant which is now comprising 65% of infections in the United States. CDC Variant Proportions ProLectin-M (PL-M) mimics the functionality of an antibody, but behaves in a very different manner. It clearly interferes with the cellular entry as this peer reviewed journal concluded. The prevailing theory is that the molecule binds in some fashion to a conserved region on the spike protein commonly referred to as the galectin fold which is a concave region located on the side of the spike protein that mimics the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of a galectin, particularly galectin-3. Additional tests would be needed to elucidate the MOA with respect to where and how it binds, but this journal article demonstrates that glycans which are a crucial part of viral entry could be disrupted with a galectin antagonist. In general, when attempting to elucidate the MOA of a drug, most atomic-level tests conducted are proximity tests that simply tell if the molecules are close. For example, in most cases, the tests would measure the change in color when two molecules get close. Its a proximity indicator to help elucidate the MOA via figuring out what molecules bind to each other, but its not really to the level of proof of a smoking gun. The significance of using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is that this methodology, actually pioneered by Dr. David Platt, answers the question of where a molecule binds and how tightly it binds. The conclusion that Prolectin-M binds strongly to Galectin-3 at a micro molar level is supported by NMR spectroscopy should not be taken lightly. The graphic that shows the shifts is difficult to understand for those not versed in the science. There are blue and red contour lines. The blue peaks contour lines represent Galectin-3 and the red peak contour lines represent PL-M. Ideal binding isn’t represented by alignment of the peaks but rather by a combination of changes in contour density and a longitudinal shift in the peaks. These contours tell where the binds are happening and shifts indicate the strength of the binding, but it is more complicated and must be analyed in conjunction with the chemical shift map. The overall conclusion is that “PL-M binds specifically to Gal-3 in the micromolar range” leaving little doubt that PL-M is an oral Galectin-3 inhibitor. Another highlight of the journal article is a toxicity study that revealed there were no-toxic side effects in the vero cells when PL-M was administered. An interesting anecdote is that PL-M actually increased the cell viability. This is not a surprise given PL-M’s use in clinical trials showed no safety signals and that other galectin inhibitors have shown positive effects for the host cells in inflammatory diseases. The next highlight were tests using two different protocols that showed that PL-M was able to effect a 99% or 2 Log viral load reduction in viral RNA copies. One protocol (Protocol 1) let the virus multiply in the cell culture before adding PL-M, measuring viral reduction (red line going up is good); the other protocol (Protocol 2) added the virus to the cell culture with PL-M and measured viral presence (red line going down is good). The molecule also showed increasing concentrations of the drug correlated to increasing levels of viral reduction. The viral mutations have seemed to evolve with increasing viral loads which translates to increasing infectivity. Given the toxicity profile (or lack thereof), greater amounts of PL-M could be employed to combat any future increase in infectivity of the virus. What is so significant about this journal article is that this is the first time in the new emerging field of Glyco-virology science that an optimized complex carbohydrate chemical structure was used to block the viral entry to cells. In essence, PL-M was able to achieve blockage of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus by interfering with the viral entry mechanism into host cells. This research by itself is groundbreaking, but when looking at the big picture all this journal article did is elucidate findings in the preliminary clinical data results from BioXyTran’s first peer-reviewed journal article using PL-M, whereby these human clinical trial results showed elimination of viral load to undetectable levels within a few days (p<0.029). The power of galectin inhibition on viruses is unmistakable. Clinical research is currently in development, but it is worth reiterating that PL-M was able to achieve undetectable viral load in a few days. It’s hard to ignore the comparison to Paxlovid which required 20 days to get 30% of the patient population to undetectable levels. The R-naught (R0) index is a measure of contagion whereby anything under 1.0 will eventually fizzle out and anything over 1.0 represents the number of infections that would be spread by one person. Given R0 of BA.5 is currently sitting a 18.6 and similar to measles it might be time for a shift in policy that starts looking at ways to control contagion instead of hospitalization. For comparison purposes the original Wuhan strain had an R-naught of 3.3. At the crux of the debate, the issue can be distilled down to which is better; eliminating contagion in 3 days or eliminating 30% of contagion in 20 days using Paxlovid, the most effective drug in the COVID-19 arsenal. This journal article represents a major breakthrough in the potential treatment of COVID-19 using a novel antiviral MOA. There is clear evidence that PL-M could be classified an an entry inhibitor which is a subset of antiviral. Drugs capable of binding to a conserved region of the spike protein should be able to block entry of any new variant. Reducing infectivity of the virus using a non-toxic drug may have great value in turning the pandemic into an endemic disease. Prolectin-M is an orally administered experimental new drug candidate that targets the Carbohydrate Binding Domain portion on the SARS-CoV-2. As promising as the theory is discussed in the journal article, readers should be aware that ProLectin-M is not currently approved to prevent, treat, or cure any disease.
HOW TO REMOVE STRETCH MARKS ON THE STOMACH?
Are you depressed due to your ugly stretch marks on the stomach? Are you a teenager having these tiger strips? Finding ways to remove your stretch marks after pregnancy? Stretch marks due to loss of weight? Will exercise create stretch marks? Learn more. Stretch marks on the stomach are not because of any underlying diseases or disorders. We wouldn’t be hurt. But because it detracts from their appearance, individuals, particularly women or single girls, feel terrible about it. They want their skin to be flawless, and in the worst-case scenario, they may become depressed over it. What are the causes of stretch marks on the stomach? 1. Puberty:  Due to the rapid growth that occurs throughout puberty, lines or streaks may emerge on the skin.  2. Obesity: Under the epidermis, there are elastic fibers that allow the body to enlarge as it grows. Stretch marks appear on the skin when growth increases and the elastic fibers begin to break. As there is a rapid expansion of skin in obese persons they are more prone to these stretch marks. Simple yet compelling detox drinks to melt your belly fat like wax 3. Heredity:  Your genes play a significant role in determining your nature, height, color, and skin texture. You may develop stretch marks if your mother developed them on her stomach while carrying you. Stretch marks on a person’s body are also provoked by heredity.  4. Exercise: Bodybuilders follow stringent and rigorous workout regimens, which cause the growth of their muscles in places like the thighs and biceps to grow quickly. It would not affect the stomach as no one will try to develop their stomach with exercises. 5. Sudden weight loss or gain:  Stretch marks can develop as a result of rapid weight gain, and the same is true of rapid weight loss. Stretch marks and weight reduction do go hand in hand. This is because when weight is dropped rapidly, it tends to lose its natural flexibility, which puts stress on the skin from the rapid weight reduction.  6. Pregnancy: The skin extends in a variety of ways throughout pregnancy to make room for the developing baby. After this stretching, the skin doesn’t return to its original shape and may even scar.  7. Cushing syndrome:  When your body consistently produces too much cortisol, Cushing syndrome develops. Taking oral corticosteroid medicine may cause this. Alternatively, your body could make too much cortisol.  Because cortisol activity has already made the skin thin and fragile, the buildup of fat brought on by Cushing’s disease stretches the skin, causing red-purple lines. 8. Usage of corticosteroids: Stretch marks can develop because corticosteroid creams, lotions, and pills make it harder for your skin to stretch.  How to remove stretch marks on the stomach naturally? https://www.friendlyyours.com/how-to-remove-stretch-marks-on-the-stomach/ #stretch marks #remove stretch marks #teenage stretch marks #pregnancy stretch marks #exercise stretch marks #weight loss stretch marks
Hearing Aids : Key Players, SWOT Analysis, Key Indicators, Forecast and COVID 19 Impact Analysis 2030
COVID-19 Impact on Global Hearing Aids Market The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the delivery of medical care across the world. The increased pressure due to the growing rate of hospitalization of COVID-19 patients had led to the re-profiling of many hospitals and departments for treating patients with COVID-19. Consequently, many elective surgeries were canceled or postponed worldwide to reserve or redirect the available limited capacities and resources (like hospital beds and patient care professionals) toward COVID-19 patient care. In particular, the provision of ENT-related surgeries and services has been disproportionally affected due to the reallocation of intensive care resources. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ENT clinics and audiology centers pose a medium-to-high risk for COVID-19 infection, considering the proximity, test set-up, and length of appointments. The fact that a majority of people who require audiology services (aged over 65 years) are also the ones at the highest risk of COVID-19 related mortality and morbidity, underscores the importance of reassessing how hearing care is delivered. The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to an increase in the preference for remote monitoring. The crisis has ushered in a new era in the hearing healthcare space that requires a radical rethinking of service delivery in audiology. Low- and no-touch services are now necessary for audiology patients (who are typically at the highest risk for COVID-19 morbidity and mortality due to their advanced age). Also, hearing aid manufacturers have started focusing on including mobile audiometry and digital hearing care solutions for remote hearing aid device troubleshooting, counseling, fine-tuning, and tracking. Download PDF Brochure @ https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/pdfdownloadNew.asp?id=198630754 Globally, the rising incidence of hearing loss has made it extremely important to monitor and examine hearing functions. In children, untreated hearing loss negatively impacts language development, learning, and social engagement. Similarly, older adults with hearing loss often have difficulty following day-to-day conversations. For people entering their retirement years, untreated hearing loss has been linked to several physical and psychological issues, ranging from cognitive decline and depression to an increased risk of trips and falls. Emerging economies such as India, South Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Africa, and Middle Eastern countries such as Israel, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE offer significant growth opportunities to major market players. This can be attributed to their low regulatory barriers, improvements in healthcare infrastructure, growing patient population, and rising healthcare expenditure. The high cost of hearing aids, such as cochlear implants and bone-anchored systems, is a major factor restraining the market growth, particularly in price-sensitive regions such as the Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Africa. Healthcare providers, especially in developing countries such as Brazil and Mexico, have low financial resources to invest in sophisticated technologies. Moreover, the staff must be extensively trained for the efficient handling and maintenance of cochlear implants and bone-anchored systems. Extensive R&D activities are required to develop technologically advanced hearing aids. Currently, several countries are facing a shortage of skilled professionals who are capable of effectively performing ENT procedures, such as cochlear implantation. Underdeveloped countries and regions face this problem on a much wider scale. The dearth of skilled ENT surgeons in these countries is expected to limit the number of ENT procedures performed, including cochlear implantation, carried out per year despite the presence of a large target patient population base. The hearing aids market is segmented into sensorineural hearing loss and conductive hearing loss based on type of hearing loss. In 2020, the sensorineural hearing loss segment accounted for the largest share. Growing geriatric patient pool is driving the growth of this segment. The higher susceptibility of the elderly population to sensorineural hearing loss makes geriatrics a key segment of the overall patient pool. Request To Get Sample Pages @ https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/requestsampleNew.asp?id=198630754 The higher susceptibility to hearing loss makes adults a key segment of the overall patient pool. As a result, the growth of this population segment will ensure a continued and intensified demand for hearing aids. The global hearing aids market is segmented into five major regions—North America, Europe, the Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. In 2020, Europe accounted for the largest share of the market. The European market’s growth can be attributed to the increasing life expectancy, rising geriatric population, and the subsequent increase in the prevalence of hearing loss. Some key players in the hearing aids market (2022-2026) Sonova Group (Switzerland) Demant A/S (Denmark) GN Store Nord A/S (Denmark) Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) RION Co., Ltd. (Japan)