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Pinus mugo - Dwarf mountain pine, European mountain pine, Mugo pine, Swiss mountain pine
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern. As this pine is widespread, with a large extent of occurrence (EOO), area of occupancy (AOO) and population, and in most cases occurs in areas where it is not threatened by human activities, and has few significant declines, it is assessed as Least Concern. Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata has a much more limited distribution and is restricted to mid-elevation peat bogs. Habitat loss due to afforestation and drainage has resulted in a reduction in its AOO and this subspecies has been assessed as Endangered. However, as this subspecies represents a relatively small part of the global population of Pinus mugo, the overall assessment for the species does not change. This species has received more names than any other conifer, some of these are still in use especially in eastern Europe. The species has two principal growth forms, commonly recognized as distinct taxa: a shrub-like, sometimes nearly decumbent form (subsp. mugo) and an upright shrub or erect tree (subsp. rotundata), which occupy different habitats. The shrubby form grows on mountain slopes and ridges generally from about 1,000 m to 2,300 m a.s.l. in the mountain ranges of Europe most exposed to storms associated with depression systems in the North Atlantic. Especially in the Carpathians, it forms dense mat-like thickets above montane forests dominated by Fagus or Picea; in the western Alps the upright form (subspecies) dominates on nutrient poor slopes. Pinus mugo in the eastern Alps may have replaced original Larch-Arolla pine woods which were disturbed by human activities and grazing of their animals. The species often occurs on dolomite limestone, but is in fact indifferent to soil type; this prevalence probably has historical reasons. While upright stands of Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata can have fairly rich plant communities, the species associated with the decumbent subsp. mugo are much fewer due to harsh environmental conditions, such as exposure and long-lasting snow cover. Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata occurs mostly in and around peat bogs and its habit, from shrub to upright tree, seems to depend on soil drainage with the low shrub form in wet moor habitat. No significant, range-wide threats have been identified for this species or for Pinus mugo subsp. mugo. Tourist and recreation-related developments (e.g. ski resorts and ski runs) could have some effect at a very localized level and acid rain in the eastern parts of its range may also be a problem (Boratynski et al. 2009). Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata has a more limited distribution than the typical subspecies and is also restricted to peat bogs. Many of these have been drained and afforested with Picea abies. As a result this subspecies has been assessed as Endangered (see Farjon 2013). The shrubby subspecies (mugo) of Dwarf mountain pine has been used in some parts of northern Europe to stabilize drifting sand dunes and as initial shelter belts for plantations with Scots pine in similar sandy areas. In horticulture it is mainly planted in spaces created by roundabouts and other types of road intersection, both in Europe and in the USA. For gardens many cultivars that remain more dwarfish than the subspecies mugo have been and are being selected, and some of these are suitable in larger rock gardens as they grow very slowly. For this reason this species has also been used in bonsai culture. The tree form (subsp. rotundata) is too uncommon and also grows too slowly to be of importance as a timber tree. Its horticultural interest is limited to arboreta, where it is often labelled as a distinct species (Pinus uncinata) and can grow into an erect small tree. Hybrids have been described between subsp. mugo and subsp. rotundata, and such plants may also occasionally be in cultivation. As with other pines, this species produces a resin that has some medicinal uses. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pines is considered antiseptic and diuretic. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic disorders. In the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers it is also used for respiratory complaints such as coughs and colds and a variety of skin problems, such as sores and boils. An essential oil obtained from the young twigs is used medicinally and also in woody perfumeries. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. Pitch could also be obtained from the resin and a tan or green dye obtained from the needles and the wood has reportedly been used to make shoes (Plants for a Future 2014). A herbal tea is also made from the needles in Bulgaria (Frankis and Earle 1999). This species is recorded from more than 50 Natura 2000 protected areas throughout its range (EUNIS 2014), such as the Tatry National Park in Poland. It has been planted ornamentally and it is conserved ex situ in 154 botanic gardens worldwide (BCGI 2013). Seed is conserved in seed banks, such as in Paver, Italy (ENSCO 2014).
Ait Ben Haddou Kasbah
The ksar, a group of earthen buildings surrounded by high walls, is a traditional pre-Saharan habitat. The houses crowd together within the defensive walls, which are reinforced by corner towers. Ait-Ben-Haddou, in Ouarzazate province, is a striking example of the architecture of southern Morocco. Located in the foothills on the southern slopes of the High Atlas in the Province of Ouarzazate, the site of Ait-Ben-Haddou is the most famous ksar in the Ounila Valley. The Ksar of Aït-Ben-Haddou is a striking example of southern Moroccan architecture. The ksar is a mainly collective grouping of dwellings. Inside the defensive walls which are reinforced by angle towers and pierced with a baffle gate, houses crowd together - some modest, others resembling small urban castles with their high angle towers and upper sections decorated with motifs in clay brick - but there are also buildings and community areas. It is an extraordinary ensemble of buildings offering a complete panorama of pre-Saharan earthen construction techniques. The oldest constructions do not appear to be earlier than the 17th century, although their structure and technique were propagated from a very early period in the valleys of southern Morocco. The site was also one of the many trading posts on the commercial route linking ancient Sudan to Marrakesh by the Dra Valley and the Tizi-n'Telouet Pass. Architecturally, the living quarters form a compact grouping, closed and suspended. The community areas of the ksar include a mosque, a public square, grain threshing areas outside the ramparts, a fortification and a loft at the top of the village, an caravanserai, two cemeteries (Muslim and Jewish) and the Sanctuary of the Saint Sidi Ali or Amer. The Ksar of Ait- Ben-Haddou is a perfect synthesis of earthen architecture of the pre-Saharan regions of Morocco. Criterion (iv): The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou is an eminent example of a ksar in southern Morocco illustrating the main types of earthen constructions that may be observed dating from the 17th century in the valleys of Dra, Todgha, Dadès and Souss. Criterion (v): The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou illustrates the traditional earthen habitat, representing the culture of southern Morocco, which has become vulnerable as a result of irreversible socio-economic and cultural changes Integrity (2009) All the structures comprising the ksar are located within the boundaries of the property and the buffer zone protects its environment. The earthen buildings are very vulnerable due to lack of maintenance and regular repair resulting from the abandonment of the ksar by its inhabitants. The CERKAS (Centre for the conservation and rehabilitation of the architectural heritage of atlas and sub-atlas zones) monitors, with difficulty, respect for the visual integrity of the property. Authenticity (2009) In comparison to other ksour of the region, the Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou has preserved its architectural authenticity with regard to configuration and materials. The architectural style is well preserved and the earthen constructions are perfectly adapted to the climatic conditions and are in harmony with the natural and social environment. The large houses in the lower part of the village, with well conserved decorative motifs, are regularly maintained. The construction materials used still remain earth and wood. The inclination to introduce cement has so far been unsuccessful, thanks to the continued monitoring of the «Comité de contrôle des infractions» (Rural Community, Town Planning Division, Urban Agency, CERKAS). Only a few lintels and reinforced concrete escaped its vigilance, but they have been hidden by earthen rendering. Particular attention is also paid to doors and windows giving on to the lanes, to ensure that the wood is not replaced by metal. Protection and management requirements (2009) Protection measures essentially relate to the different laws for the listing of historic monuments and sites, in particular the Law 22-80 concerning Moroccan heritage. The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou currently has a five-year management plan (2007-2012). This management plan is the result of two years of reflection and workshops involving all the persons and institutions concerned with the future of the site, in particular the local populations. The recommendations of this plan are being implemented. Furthermore, two management committees have been established (a local committee and a national one) in which all the parties are represented and cooperate in decision-making. As well as managing the property, CERKAS ensures coordination in the implementation of this management plan. visit our site for more informations...
Qu'est ce que le survivalisme ?
Le survivalisme par définition est un mode de vie qui constitue à une préparation à une éventuelle catastrophe. La préparation des survivants repose principalement sur l'apprentissage des techniques de survie et des concepts médicaux. Avec la bonne préparation, le bon équipement et les bons vêtements avec notre boutique militariat, vous pouvez survivre à la forêt ou prévenir les catastrophes. L'origine du survivalisme a commencé avec l'herbertisme. Il s'agit d'un événement pour former l'officier de marine Georges Hébert. Le but de cette activité est de devenir puissant et utile. Pour ce faire, il est nécessaire de réaliser une éducation sportive, nature et utilitaire. Aux États-Unis dans les années 1960, l'inflation et la dépréciation ont incité les gens à adopter l'idée de kits de sauvetage. À partir des années 1970, certains livres sur le mot « survie » et les méthodes appropriées ont commencé à paraître. Kurt Saxon sera le premier à utiliser le terme "survivaliste". Cependant, John Pugsley publiera "Strategy Alpha" dans les années 1980. Ce livre est devenu une référence pour les survivalistes américains. Dans les années 1990, le mythe du bug du millénaire a donné un nouvel élan au mouvement survivaliste. Les divers événements catastrophiques de 2000 à nos jours continuent d'alimenter la peur et de stimuler la motivation survivaliste. La survie est parfois liée aux croyances religieuses. Être préparé signifie parfois commencer un long voyage avec la famille, les amis et les voisins, mais parfois le voyage doit être commencé seul. Ne pas se préparer, bien ou mal, à l'effondrement imminent, souvent appelé survivalisme. En revanche, il peut y avoir rupture plus ou moins normale. Ils dépendent de l'âge, du sexe, du lieu de résidence, de la formation précédente, des personnes accompagnantes, du matériel disponible... Ainsi, notre magasin survivaliste a pour objectif de regrouper au même endroit du matériel utile et de qualité, et à un prix abordable, dans le respect des grandes règles des survivalistes : eau, alimentation, énergie, hygiène/santé, défense, et blog Connaissances. Par conséquent, nous ne parlerons pas d'invasion extraterrestre...
Top 5 Native Water Plants for Your Garden
Water gardens have been famous in both private and public locations since ancient times. Water has always been calming to all of our senses. Water also provides for the life that lives around your pond. With their unique colors and forms, water plants offer a wide variety of sizes, shapes and colors that will make your water garden an incredible oasis. There are so many native water plants that are used all over the world to make the gardens more alive and green. Here, you can read about the five best water plants for your garden or pond that raise the beauty of nature and give oxygen to the environment. Monkey Flower With several different native species you have options when it comes to flower color. Monkey Flower is an upright perennial that attracts Butterflies, Bees and other pollinators.Mimulus on average grow up to 18-24 inches, does well in shady areas. Arrow Arum This perennial plant grows best in bogs and shallow water, reaching heights of 2-3 feet on average. This water garden plant gets its name from its arrow shaped leaves. At one time there were 40 different varieties along with different colored blooms. Also does well in shady areas. Bog Bean They naturally grow in boggy and watery areas and have 3 parted green leaves and white to pinkishstar shaped flowers. Flowers generally late spring to late summer.Menyanthes trifoliate also known as buckbean is a very hardy plant that does well in full sun to part shade Golden Club A common emergent water plant that grows with green erect strapped like leaves that float on top of the water. With a waxy texture the leaves repel water. Orontiumaquaticumflowers are long and cylindrical with tiny yellow flowers. Give it full sun for best flower color. Horsetail Horsetail is one of the oldest surviving plant life forms and one of the most requested pond plants. A very hardy and easy to care for true aquatic plant. Stems can remain green even in cold climates, whether you choose the hymale (full size) or the scirpoides (dwarf) variety plant they will offer a great contrast in your pond. Both do well in sun to part shade. Conclusion So, these are some of the best native aquatic plants that you can put into your pond. Consider the size of the plant, water depth and the amount of sun they require when selecting waterplants for your pond. Now, it's your turn to make your water garden plant more attractive with these beautiful water plants.