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Lawyers for Unfair Wages


What are some illegal practices that involve unfair wages?


Wage discrimination is also known as unfair wages. It refers to the inability to pay employees fair compensation for their work, or a wage that is lower than the minimum wage. Most employment law cases are based on unfair wage claims. These lawsuits usually focus on two main areas of employment law: discrimination laws and wage and hour laws.

Here are some examples of unethical pay practices at work:

A worker is entitled to a lower wage because they are of a different nationality, gender, race or disability.
Failure to pay overtime workers;
Retaining retirement pensions, benefits for disability, and health insurance benefits.
Employers are misclassified as "exempt" when in fact they are non-exempt workers.
Employers being required to report hours worked less than actually worked during a given workweek.
Underpaying or withholding a paycheck.

Employers can engage in unfair wage practices in many ways, as you can see. If you feel that your employer has not paid you fair wages for your work, it is in your best interests to immediately contact an employment lawyer. An attorney can assess your case and determine if you can sue your employer for damages.

What are some other issues involved in lawsuits for unfair wages?
Other than the illegal practices discussed in the previous section, there are other problems that could be associated with unfair wages at work.

Falsified wage records It is illegal to falsify wages, timesheets, or the hours worked by an employee. Falsified wage records can not only impact an employee's eligibility for a promotion or raise but also affect their eligibility for insurance and other retirement issues.

Child labor - Illegally employing minors or children who aren't allowed to work under the law can lead to unfair wage issues.

Fraud: Fraud is a concern with falsified wage records. Fraud can be described as the deliberate or intentional alteration of wage records by employees in order to pay them less.

Employers must pay at least the minimum wage. Both federal and state laws mandate that employers pay minimum wage to their employees. The minimum wage is subject to change as inflation often causes the wage rate to rise.

What should I do if I have legal issues involving unfair wages in my workplace?
Unfair wages at work can be dealt with by a variety of legal options. An employee must first file a complaint to a federal or state agency that handles unfair wage matters (e.g. the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission "EEOC")) in order to report unpaid wages.

After receiving the complaint, the agency will review it and open an investigation. If they don't find evidence, the agency will close the case and send a "Right to Sue” letter to the employee. If the agency finds that the employer has violated the law or committed the acts described in the complaint, the agency will close the matter and issue a "Right to Sue" letter to the employee.

An employee who receives a "Right to Sue” letter from their employer can file a civil private lawsuit against them in court. If an employee wins a lawsuit against their employer, they might be eligible to receive a monetary damages award to cover any losses.

Important to remember is that an employee must first exhaust all administrative remedies (e.g., submitting a complaint to the EEOC), before they can file a civil private lawsuit against their employer for damages.

An employee who feels they are being paid unfairly for their work should, in any case, begin collecting and organizing evidence to support their claim. Examples of such evidence include:

Tax returns for employees (e.g. W2s)
Timesheets and work schedules
Documents that are related to work (e.g., payslips, receipts, and HR emails), job offer letters, and employment contracts...

Employees should consider writing a written account detailing the violation to keep track of all events. This record should contain the contact information and testimony of any witnesses or victims of the unfair wage violation.

A class-action lawsuit against an employer may be an option if several employees have been affected by unpaid wages. While a class-action lawsuit does not guarantee success in every case, it can provide stronger evidence that there was a violation. Because a group of workers, rather than a single person, claim to have been affected.
A violation of the Equal Pay Act is an example of when it might make sense to file a group action lawsuit rather than a private individual suit. The Equal Pay Act, a federal law, requires that both men and women are paid equally for the same job.

If female legal assistants receive less than their male counterparts, they would be likely to be able to file a lawsuit against the law firm. To bring a successful Equal Pay Act case, plaintiffs must prove the following:

They were doing the same work or equivalent as their male counterparts.
They worked together (e.g. the law firm in the example).
They were still being paid less than their colleagues, despite all this.

Do I need to hire a lawyer if I have issues involving unfair wages?
Employment and/or labor law claims can be very complicated. You may need to be familiar with both the federal and state laws governing employment in your particular case. If you have questions about unfair wages or are involved with a dispute regarding unfair pay at work, it might be in your best interests to consult an employment lawyer as soon as possible.

An employment lawyer can review your case and determine if you have a strong case. If you are able to prove that you have a valid claim, your lawyer can also advise you on what steps to take to reach a positive resolution.

Your lawyer can also assist you in filing a claim with a government agency such as the EEOC. If you've already done this step, your lawyer can assist you in the process of filing a private suite with the court.

Your lawyer can also provide legal representation if you have to appear in court or meet with your employer to discuss a settlement.
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The United Arab Emirates comprises of the Seven Emirates: Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Um al Quwain and Ajman. In addition, the UAE also has several Free Zone entities across its seven Emirates, and each free zone is designed around one or more business industry categories, and an independent Free Zone Authority (FZA) governs each free zone. Today, the UAE offers close to forty multidisciplinary free zones that allow for full ownership of complies for ex-pats. The most popular names are the Jebel Ali Freezone (JAFZA), Dubai Airport Freezone (DAFZA), Dubai Multi Commodities Centre (DMCC), Sharjah Media City Free Zone (Shams), Ras Al Khaimah Economic Zone (RAKEZ) and Financial free zones such as Dubai International Free zone Centre (DIFC), and Abu Dhabi Global Market (ADGM) among others. Though often stated as a civil law system, the UAE is, in fact, constitutes a dual legal system of civil and Sharia laws. Further, the country has also introduced common law to a certain extent, as the same is practiced in the Dubai International Free zone Centre (DIFC). DIFC describes its presence as a unique legal framework that is based on international standards and principles of common law that are focused on catering to the regional requirements. Overall, the legal system in the UAE draws from Islamic Sharia law. However, most of the codified laws of the UAE can be defined to be a mixture of both Islamic Sharia laws as well as the legal influences from the Egyptian and French Civil laws. Litigation in general can be a costly as well as time-consuming experience. However, compared to many other jurisdictions, the UAE court procedures are more fast-paced with definitive measures in place. That said to the commoner, the litigation and execution measures may still be a cause of concern which is often associated with lack of awareness. The process in itself is often confusing. Therefore, through this article, we would like to take you through the basics of the litigation process, which broadly comprises of two steps' litigation' and 'execution'. Three Tier Court System: The local court system in the UAE consists of a three-tier system comprising of the Court of First Instance (federal and local), Court of Appeal (federal and local), Court of Cassation at the local level of the emirates and the Federal Supreme Court (at the federal level). The Three-tier legal system essentially allows the parties to challenge the court's judgment with a higher court and to be able to present more evidence as well as to participate in further adjudication in a given matter. In the court process, a judgment is said to become final when it either completes the three stages of litigation or the maximum stages possible. For instance, in certain matters based on the claim amount, it might not be possible to appeal the case up to the cassation court. In another instance, if either the judgment creditor or debtor choose to accept the judgment issued by the first court, as it is and forgo the appeal process, the judgment will become final. Execution Process: As discussed above, once the final judgment is issued, the judgment creditor is required to proceed with execution measures before the execution court. Pursuant to , “Article 69 of the Cabinet Decision No. 57/2018 on the Regulation of Federal Law No. 11/1992 on the Civil Procedure, 'Execution shall be made under the supervision of the execution judge assigned at the seat of each court of the first instance and shall be assisted by a sufficient number of execution officers, or private companies or offices.” Article 97 of the implanting regulation governing civil procedure code states the procedures part of the execution steps, which include: * The execution is preceded by the service of the writ of execution. * The service paper is required to state the matter and the notice to pay the debt served upon the debtor within fifteen days from the date of his notification. * If the writ of execution is issued based on a contract to open a letter of credit, it shall be notified together with an extract of the debtor's account as per the creditor's current ledgers. * In the event of execution by the evacuation of a property or by the delivery of a movable or real estate, the notice of the writ of execution shall adequately specify such funds. * If the writ of execution includes a date for evacuation or delivery, the notice shall mention such date. Execution measures are critical to the success of your claim as it brings you to the final steps of converting your court victory to actual reality. The execution courts are empowered to order acute measures such as provisions seizure of the debtor's funds in accordance with the rules and procedures, may prevent the execution debtor from travelling before the announcement of the writ, as well as an order to inquire about the debtor's funds prior to his notification of the writ of execution. https://www.professionallawyer.me/legal-articles/civil-law/litigation-and-execution-procedures-in-the-uae
Risk factors for children and young people
Young children and teenagers can be particularly susceptible to problems and weaknesses. They are at a greater risk for and burdened by mental illness as a result of this. There are several things to learn about it. That's why you can definitely have chcprt001 assessment answers. That will help you to know more about it. Here are some reasons that you should consider - ● Addiction to alcohol and other drugs Young people are starting to have problems with alcohol and drugs at younger & younger ages, and this is part of a larger trend toward "dual diagnosis," or the co-occurring presence of substance abuse with mental health issues. There are also several aspects to learn about it. So get CHCPRT001 Assessment Answers to learn more about it. Adolescent and child alcohol and drug abuse can have serious consequences for the child's as well as the family's social and emotional development. First-episode psychotic youth, youth in out-of-home care, and youth associated with the juvenile justice system are at increased risk for developing severe substance abuse problems. ● Homelessness Young individuals who are homeless or in danger of becoming homeless, as well as children who live in homeless households, are more likely to have mental health issues. They have mental health issues or histories of abuse, neglect, or family violence. They are also disproportionately represented among the homeless population. Self-harming behavior among homeless or at-risk youth can be a double-edged sword, as it can both prompt them to seek treatment during times of crisis and prevent them from getting it. CHCPRT001 Children & Young People At Risk helps to learn about the young individuals who are homeless face a high risk of cognitive disability or impairment as well as a long-term risk of suicide, despite there being no simple diagnostic for their situation. ● Out-of-home care Children, teenagers, and infants who are institutionalized are among the most defenseless & vulnerable members of our society, together with their families. Learn more about it with assignments help Australia. Mainly, the importance of a child's early sense of belonging is important. That comes to their family, community, and culture cannot be overstated. When this is broken, the child's complicated feelings of grief & trauma can have far-reaching effects on all aspects of their growth and development.
Importance of a Tax Consultant for your business
It is important to have a tax consultant for your business. A good tax consultant can help you in many ways and make sure that you are not paying a higher amount of taxes than what is required. These days, the taxation system has become very complex and there are many loopholes which you might not know about. If you don’t have an expert advice, it is easy to make mistakes while filing your taxes. You might end up paying more taxes than required or even worse, get into trouble with the authorities. Kaali Tax Consultancy is a leading tax consultancy in Chennai and we provide complete range of services in income tax, personal tax, corporate tax, VAT, and other indirect taxes. Kaali tax consultancy in Chennai is one of the most trusted names in the industry and our services are highly appreciated by the clients. We offer a complete range of tax consulting services to our clients which includes: Tax Planning and Consulting Services: - Business Tax Advisory Services - Personal Tax Advisory Services - Tax Audit and Dispute Resolution Services - Income Tax Return Preparation Services - GST Return Preparation Services Get Help from a kaali PF and ESI consultant for your business Kaali PF and ESI consultant in Chennai are well-equipped with the knowledge about all the necessary procedures for PF and ESI registration. We are also aware of the various exemptions and deductions that can be availed before proceeding with registration. There are many reasons to hire a kaali PF and ESI consultant for your business. The most important one is that we can help you save time, money and effort. Our PF and ESI consultant will help you with all the registration formalities for PF and ESI. we are also help you with GST registration, so that your business can run smoothly without any interruption in the future. Also we are one of the top IT and Non-IT Recruitment Services in Chennai. kaali consulting has been in business for over 10 years and has established a reputation for providing the most reliable and best IT jobs. The company specializes in providing services to Indian multinational companies, SMEs, start-ups, government agencies, academic institutions and international organizations.
How is international arbitration implemented in the UAE during the new normal?
The number of arbitration cases being registered in the United Arab Emirates has been steadily increasing in recent years. This is especially so for Dubai in terms of commercial litigation, with arbitration being included as a standard clause for dispute resolution, whether relating to real estate matters, construction or commercial contracts. The year 2021 has seen critical changes in the arbitration sector with a new decree anointing the ‘Dubai International Arbitration Centre’ (DIAC) as a sole arbitral chamber in the emirate, which now essentially abolishes the Dubai International Financial Centre-London Court of International Arbitration (DIFC-LCIA). The said decree is in effect from September 2021 and establishes the Dubai International Arbitration Centre to act as the sole dispute-resolution seat in the emirate of Dubai. In this article, we will particularly discuss international arbitration in the UAE and the provisions of the UAE Arbitration Law (Federal Law No. 6/2018 on ‘Arbitration’). It is important to note that the UAE Arbitration Law also applies to international, commercial arbitrations conducted outside the UAE if the parties to the dispute agree to the same. International arbitration has had its crucial impact felt during the Covid pandemic, where the international arbitration process demonstrated its resilience and flexibility in resolving disputes by delivering through technological means, including holding sessions remotely. International arbitration rules concerning the use of technology: Article 28(4) of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (‘UNCITRAL’) Arbitration Rules of 2010 (revised rules) allows for arbitral tribunals the power to have expert witnesses to be examined through means of videoconferencing. Article 28 In the event of an oral hearing, the arbitral Tribunal shall give the parties adequate advance notice of the date, time and place thereof. Witnesses, including expert witnesses, may be heard under the conditions and examined in the manner set by the arbitral Tribunal. Hearings shall be held in camera unless the parties agree otherwise. The arbitral Tribunal may require the retirement of any witness or witnesses, including expert witnesses, during the testimony of such other witnesses, except that a witness, including an expert witness, who is a party to the arbitration shall not, in principle, be asked to retire. The arbitral Tribunal may direct that witnesses, including expert witnesses, be examined through means of telecommunication that do not require their physical presence at the hearing (such as videoconference) UAE arbitration process on the use of technology: The UAE arbitration law is largely based on the international UNCITRAL model arbitration law. The DIAC Rules of 2007 and its amendments govern the arbitration proceedings of the Dubai International Arbitration Centre. Article 20 of the DIAC rules determines the place of arbitration and states that, Article 20.1:The parties may agree in writing on the seat of the arbitration. In the absence of such a choice, the seat of arbitration shall be Dubai, unless the Executive Committee determines in view of all the circumstances, and after having given the parties an opportunity to make a written comment, that another seat is more appropriate. Article 20.2: The Tribunal may, after consultation with the parties, conduct hearings or meetings at any place that it considers appropriate. The Tribunal may deliberate wherever it considers appropriate. Article 20.3: The award shall be deemed to have been made at the seat of the arbitration. Further, article 34.7 of the DIAC Arbitration rules 2017, states that, ‘The Tribunal shall only require witnesses who have submitted a written statement and who have been requested to provide oral testimony during the hearing, to swear an oath prior to giving oral evidence, subject to any mandatory provisions of the applicable procedural law. The Tribunal shall have the authority to accept oaths and conduct examinations in person or by electronic means including telephone or video conference or a combination thereof, provided it has first satisfied itself of the identity of the witness’. Both the said articles thus essentially allow wide discretion to the tribunal to determine that a virtual setting would be the most appropriate venue. Further, there are express provisions and procedures incorporated in the rules that allow for conducting of witness hearings through electronic means of communication such as video conferencing (as included above). In the Covid era, these flexible rules have proven their worth, and international arbitration in the UAE has demonstrated its resilience and effectiveness. This practice continues into the post covid era as well. https://www.professionallawyer.me/legal-articles/arbitration/international-arbitration-implemented-in-the-uae-during-the-new-normal
Do you want to get good grades in architecture?
Need assistance with your architecture homework or a special project? How do you like searching for writers who specialize in writing about architecture? If you have any architectural questions, we have the solutions for you. Architecture Instant Assignment Help is here for students all over the world to get the highest possible grades on their architectural assignments. Due to the more complex nature of architectural concepts, it is one of the more difficult types of homework to complete. To get into architecture college, you need to be dedicated & work hard. Many students, however, struggle to complete high-quality architecture papers for a variety of reasons. As a result, many students can get last-minute assignment help. Experts are available whenever those students need them. The team of writers has been assisting students with their architecture homework for years. The ideal assistance with architectural homework can be obtained by employing specialists. What is Architecture - The term "architecture" refers to a field that includes elements of both art and sketching. The study of building design, construction, administration, mechanics, thermodynamics, etc., is known as architecture. Artistic abilities are the foundation of architecture, but other areas, such as mathematics, physics, etc., are also essential. Get the instant assignment services to learn more about it. Since only a small area of high school students want to pursue creative careers, its entrance exam is easier than other schools. As an architect, you might expect to gain notoriety professionally and travel extensively in your leisure time. It's a great job that can lead to the launch of your own company. Students interested in the arts tend to gravitate toward this field because of the wide variety of possible occupations and areas of expertise they can pursue. Why Should One Choose Architecture as a Profession? Is it beneficial to choose this profession? If you are imaginative, you will find fulfilment in your work and work harder and smarter. For some students, the study and practice of this profession develop into a lifelong interest. If you want to succeed in the field of architecture, you must be able to handle individuals of all socioeconomic backgrounds, from clients to employees. Architects have a crucial role in shaping the environments in which we live, making them invaluable to society. At times, you'll need to work on high-profile projects if you want to be seen as a successful professional. Various forms of work can give you a type of achievement. In what ways does architectural study important to college students? Students enjoy their time in class while gaining the architectural knowledge they need. The architectural program helps students to fully explore their abilities. This course has the potential to foster creativity in its students. They will have several chances to show their worth. Several other traditional courses focus on reading and writing and slow down the students. On the other hand, this kind of career is available. Few professions pay as well as architectural design. Students must do well in their coursework to earn a high wage after graduation. What is the Secret To Getting High Marks On Your Architecture Projects? Every youngster wants to do well in college. But occasionally, no matter how hard they try, students just can't get the grades they had hoped for. The assignments help Australia with such guidelines and can assist you in succeeding academically in Architecture. Do Your Architecture Homework With The Best! If you need assistance with your architectural projects, choose a team of professionals who are always ready to assist you. The experts are here to help you succeed. Get peace of mind by using great online architectural support. Don't stress out any longer; get in touch with a great specialist in Architecture right now.
Learn More About the New Personal Data Protection Law in the UAE
The United Arab Emirates has issued for the first time a federal law for the protection of personal data, namely the 'Federal Decree-Law no. 45/2021 on the Protection of Personal Data' ('Personal Data Protection Law'). The provisions of the personal data protection law apply to the processing of personal data in the UAE, whether done automatically through electronic systems or via other means. Apart from the newly introduced Law, there exists separate data protection laws applicable to the Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC), the Abu Dhabi Global Market (ADGM) and the Dubai Healthcare City. Applicability The Personal Data Protection Law is wide-reaching in its applicability which applies to: 1) A data subject who resides or carries out business in the UAE. A data subject refers to any natural person who is the subject of data that could be used to identify such a person; 2) Any controller or processor of data located in the UAE who carries out activities involving processing personal data of data subjects whether residing inside or outside the UAE; and 3) A controller or processor of data located outside the UAE, but carries out activities of processing personal data of data subjects inside the UAE.  'Personal Data' Defined The personal data protection law clearly defines personal data into two types: Personal Data and Sensitive Personal Data.  Wherein, Personal Data refers to any data relating to an identified natural person, or one who can be identified directly or indirectly by way of linking data, using identifiers such as name, voice, picture, identification number, online identifier, geographic location, or one or more special features that express the physical, psychological, economic, cultural or social identity of such person. It also includes Sensitive Personal Data and Biometric Data.  Whereas, Sensitive Data, refers to any data that directly or indirectly reveal a natural person's family, racial origin, political or philosophical opinions, religious beliefs, criminal records, biometric data, or any data related to the health of such people, such as his/her physical, psychological, mental, genetic or sexual condition, including information related to health care services provided thereto that reveals his/her health status. What Constitutes a Breach? Article 5 of the UAE Personal Data Protection Law lays out the legal parameters for processing personal data and states that personal data must be collected only for a specific and clear purpose and should not be processed at any given period in a manner that is incompatible with that purpose. Further, personal data should be stored securely with adequate technical protections included in place, and it should be stored only with the identity of the data subject anonymized. The controller of the personal data should obtain the consent of the data subject either in writing or in an electronic format, and the consent letter should indicate the right of the data subject to withdraw such consent at a later date. A data breach may comprise of breach of information security and personal data by illegal or unauthorized access, including copying, sending, distributing, exchanging, transmitting, circulating or processing data in a way that leads to disclosure thereof to third parties, or damage or alteration thereof during the processes of storage, transmission and Processing. The UAE Personal Data Protection Law provides for the Council of Ministers to issue a decision, based on the proposal of the Data Office’s General Manager, on the acts constituting a breach of this law and the administrative penalties to be imposed. The new Personal Data Protection Law has come into force on 2 January 2022. One of the main objectives of this law has been to ensure that strict controls are in place for the Processing of personal data, to maintain its security, confidentiality and privacy. The rights of the data subject have been clearly defined, including the right to object to and stop the processing of his or her personal data if the processing is for direct marketing purposes, including profiling related to direct marketing or whether the processing is for conducting statistical surveys unless the processing is necessary to achieve the public interest. https://www.professionallawyer.me/legal-articles/criminal-law/learn-more-about-the-new-personal-data-protection-law-in-the-uae
Do you want to find out the need for biotechnology in our lives? Here are some of the best reasons to know about Biotech.
Often referred to as Biotech, it is the use of Biology to introduce new products, methods, and organisms to improve human health conditions and society. The discipline has evolved much before its earlier uses. As biotechnology is comparatively an expensive discipline, students often search for cheap assignment writing services. In such situations, you can make use of cheap assignment help Australia to write your projects, homework, and other writings. Their experts will provide you with the best resources to study and they are easily available on their websites. Biotechnology is the combination of both science and technology. In this subject, you will notice that it draws various disciplines of modern science and technologies. For instance- Genomics Nanotechnology Informatics Chemistry Bionics Genetic Engineering Molecular Biology As mentioned above, you will find that there are various uses of biotechnology mostly in the environment, medicine, agriculture, and industry. To explore more about the subject and its properties you can seek help from cheap assignment help. Although you pay a minimum price to them, they do not compress the quality of your assignments. You will be served with standard writing following a well-structured format. Biotech in medicine- As a biotech student if you work for the medicinal sector you will learn to make research on how to reduce rates of infectious diseases. You get an opportunity to work for children facing problems from malnutrition and save the lives of millions of children like them. It is also through this field of biotechnology you can create ideas for creating more precise tools for detecting diseases. If you are stuck with complex principles and theories of biotechnology or medicine, you can look for subject experts from cheap assignment services. They are always available and you can ask for samples in biotech. This will help you to get a conceptual understanding of the topic and makes it easier for you to compose your assignments. Biotechnology in Industries- In industrial use of biotechnology, it uses biological processes such as fermentation and harnesses biocatalysts to become microscopic manufacturing plants. In industries using biotechnology, you will find it has improved the manufacturing process to save 50% on its operating cost. Moreover, this has also encouraged industries to make use of biofuels to cut greenhouse emissions by 52% or more. Biotechnology in agriculture- Many farming practices have switched to sustainability and are more environmentally friendly. By acquiring knowledge on biotech crops you can teach farmers to make less use of pesticides and yield more crops. While working in this area, you will become competent in educating the farmers to produce allergen and toxin-free food products. Make them understand that improving their farming methods will help them produce more of their products. When you search do my assignment cheap on the internet you will find plenty of cheap assignment services. Each of them has highly qualified and experienced professionals to solve any of your assignments. Their payment systems are secured and they always aim to be student-centric. From now on you do not have to worry about the money matter.
What Do You Need to Know About the Limitation Period in the UAE?
Limitation period refers to the time period within which a claim has to be submitted before the rightful forum or court. When a claim is submitted before the limitation period closes, the same will be accepted by the courts, and in the case of the latter, it will be subject to further rules and, in most cases, such a claim can be rejected for exceeding the time limit prescribed by law. The limitation period can, in this sense, be better understood as a technical rule of qualification for a claim. There are many reasons for this rule of practice; one such rule is to ensure that a claim is being submitted for adjudication within a reasonable time period. Lack of this rule can, in other words, create a chaotic litigation system that wouldn’t serve the purpose of reasonableness or justice. The limitation period is, however, much more than a simple rule referring to a specific time limit, and in fact, it cannot be summarized in a single rule. There exist different time limits applicable for different types of claims. Such rules will be discussed in this article, along with the supplementary conditions that are to be satisfied when ascertaining the applicable time limits. Limitation period applicable for various types of claims: As we discussed, there are different time limits or limitation periods that apply to different types of matters. For instance, the limitation period that applies to a contractual claim would be different than what applies to an employment dispute claim. General Contracts: Generally, for contractual claims, the limitation period is set to run for fifteen years and lapses upon reaching this time period when there does not exists any valid legal excuse for further extension in time (Article 473). Commercial Contracts: The above limitation of fifteen years runs for general contracts, while for commercial contracts, the limitation period is limited to ten years instead of fifteen. Construction Contracts: For construction contracts, the period of limitation runs for ten years or longer, if so, agreed between the parties, and for this time period, both the architect and the contractor remain liable for defects that can endanger the solidity or security of the building (Article 880). Contract for sale of goods: When a matter concerns the sale of goods or a claim for terminating a contract of sale of goods or reducing the price for the goods etc. the general norm is that the limitation period shall run for one year from the date of delivery of the goods (Article 524). Employment Disputes: For employment disputes, pursuant to the latest changes introduced by the ‘ministerial decision no. 47/2022 on regulating labour disputes and complaints procedures’, either the employee or the employer may submit a labour complaint within thirty days of any breach of the obligations of either of them towards the other as stated in the employment contract or as per the employment law and its executive regulations. Other Rules concerning limitation period: As we discussed earlier, the limitation period is much more than a few simple rules referring to the time limit and include amongst others the following rules in its application: The limitation period shall run only from the day on which the debt has become due or from the day on which the claim conditions have been realized (Article 478). Further, the period of limitation is calculated in days, with the first day not being counted. The time limitation shall end on the last date of the prescribed limit; however, if the said date is an official holiday, then the time limit shall be extended to the following day (Article 480). The limitation period can be interrupted in between whenever there exists a lawful excuse to gain such exemption and, thereby, the period for which such lawful excuse runs could be exempted from the overall time limit applicable (Article 481(1)). Similarly, the limitation period also gets interrupted upon the institution of a court claim or any legal proceedings instituted by the creditor claiming his right (Article 484). The limitation period can also be considered to have been interrupted when there is an express or tacit admission of the right by the debtor (Article 483). Further, whenever the time period of limitation gets interrupted pursuant to Article 485 (1), a new prescription period shall commence, which shall have the same duration as that of the former one. It is also not permissible for parties to agree upon the term for limitation other than what has been fixed by the law (Article 487). The limitation period constitutes a crucial technical ground for the admissibility of a claim. However, that said, the parties can still make submissions explaining the delay in the submission of a claim when lawful excuses exist. In such instances, the court would decide the justification of such lawful excuse, and the admissibility of the claim pursuant to the rules governing limitation shall be subject to preliminary adjudication. It is critical to gain a thorough understanding of the rules governing limitations in order to avoid potential losses in the future. https://www.professionallawyer.me/legal-articles/civil-law/limitation-period-in-the-uae