conifersgarden
5+ Views

Larix kaempferi - Japanese larch, Karamatsu (Japanese)

Conservation Status
Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern
This species has a fairly restricted range in central Honshu, Japan. It is an extremely important timber tree and although it has been heavily exploited over time, there has been supplemental re-planting of the species essentially for commercial reasons. The provenance of the supplemental material is unknown, and it is likely that this comes from forestry sources, which is most likely improved or at least had some selection involved. It is impossible to distinguish natural trees from planted individuals, and there is also inter-breeding, so effectively the whole population is slowly being altered over time to being of mixed genetic origin. To what degree this genetic contamination results in any genetic decline is not known. As it is impossible to distinguish between the wild population and the introduced population, the species has to either be assessed as Data Deficient or Least Concern. Larix kaempferi is a species of mesic sites, occurring from the hills to high in the mountains (500 m to 2,300 m a.s.l.), on the south face of Fuji san it reaches 2,900 m. Unlike the other NE Asiatic larches it occupies better soils, often of recent volcanic origin, and is never found on peat. It is commonly found in association with other conifers, e.g. Pinus densiflora, Picea jezoensis subsp. hondoensis, Tsuga diversifolia, Abies homolepis at lower elevations, and Abies veitchii at higher elevations, but it is clearly a sub-climax species. Several broad-leaved tree genera are present at the lower elevations, e.g. Quercus, Fagus and Betula. Pure 'scrub stands' may occur at the upper limit of trees. Has been heavily exploited in the past for its timber – was used for house building, etc. But after logging, seedlings were planted back in the area again. So although the natural population has been logged, because there has been supplemental planting the exploitation can be considered not to have been that damaging as far as we can tell. The question is whether or not the seedlings were from the same subpopulation or were from a different subpopulation, or worse yet, from cultivated (improved) sources. Without further knowledge about the provenance of the seedling material one has to assume that these are introductions and thus over the long-term the population remains fairly stable. Phytopthora ramorum has been recorded to be sporulating in Larix kaempferi plants planted in Europe: if this were to spread to the native population in Japan, it could pose a problem. Japanese larch is an important timber tree in Japan and in Europe (Scotland), where it has been introduced in 1834. The wood is similar to that of European larch and is used for construction, railway sleepers, pit props and the pulp industry. It is also a frequently planted amenity tree in parks and large gardens and a limited number of cultivars are known. In Scotland, a spontaneous hybrid occurred around 1900 between Larix kaempferi and Larix decidua which was named Larix x eurolepis Henry (but is correctly named Larix x marschlinsii Coaz based on an earlier crossing event) and shows marked F1 hybrid vigour or heterosis. Its seed cones resemble those of Larix kaempferi with recurved scale apices, but are larger. This fast growing hybrid became much favoured by foresters and has been propagated and planted widely in many parts of Europe, often involving back-crosses with either parents. Despite this greater production of timber per ha/year of the hybrid, Japanese larch remains an important plantation tree for timber on poorer soils, where neither the hybrid not the other parent do so well and where much of Europe's plantation forestry is situated (the better soils being occupied by agriculture mostly for food crops). Part of the range falls inside a protected area, but much is outside. Larix kaempferi has also been planted back into the Yatsukaga-Chushin Kogen Quasi National Park.
Comment
Suggested
Recent
Cards you may also be interested in
Best Tips for Indoor Plants Placement
Organizing indoor plants properly will make your home more joyous. Manage Your Space Adding plants to a room can improve its appeal even if it is beautifully furnished. It is important to incorporate the plant and plant stands into the rooms at initial designing phase as much as possible in order to create an intentional and cohesive space. The houseplant can serve as a design problem solver in the future with proper placement and selection. Have you noticed that your room is a little spare? Transform the space by adding houseplants to make it inviting and hospitable. Knowing the Requirement of Plants In a room, corners contains more empty space. In addition to elevating and filling the space, an indoor tree can make a focal point in the room. As small in size, a dragon tree (Dracaena marginata) is less demanding on space and light, while a fiddleleaf fig (Ficus lyrata) can be spread to fill a large area in a bright room. Choose a decorative container to place the plant with its original pot. For large indoor trees to remain stable and visually proportional, they need a substantial pot or basket. If you want to protect the floor from the water leaking from the plant pot you have to use a plastic saucer. Selection and Arrangement There's another way to achieve a similar impact without spending a fortune on a large tree. Two more plants, ranging in size from taller to smaller plants, can be chosen. It is easy to combine the terms Limelight Dracaena with Peace Lilies (Spathiphyllum) in light, as well as their foliage, which complements each other. Decorative pots are then added. It is one of the best looks to elevate plants in a simple, stylish way with a mid-century modern planter on legs. Generally they are sold in pairs. You can create a stunning display by adding a third lower pot. It's up to you whether the containers are the same material and color, or if you want to mix and match. How it Looks There are many types of plant stands and they serve a wide range of design purposes. Have you ever noticed that the view out your window isn't the best that it could be? Plant stands that are tall and substantial can resolve this problem. There will be no problem for the plants as they get the light, and their surroundings will be easily diffused. Place a saucer under each plant so that surfaces are protected, and keep in mind the stand's shelf height when choosing plants. Use the Space Smartly Consider an architectural plant stand if you have a blank wall that needs something special. An attractive display is enhanced by the stand in this case. Maybe you're fond of succulents or bonsai, this is a great place to display them. Choose plants based on the amount of light the plants will receive. Choose plants based on the amount of light the plants will receive. Use Hanging Plant Stands If you consider hanging plants as old fashioned, think again. Here are a few places where they can be used most effectively. You can create a buffer between yourself and the outside world with a large hanging plant (or several smaller ones). If the view out the window isn't good, this method is especially useful. Make sure the plants fill the window by hanging them low. You can make your corner green with easy-care plants like neon pothos (Epipremnum aureum), spider plants (Chlorphytum comosum), or silver philodendrons (Scindapsus pictus 'Exotica'). Try Different Sets Houseplants look great on coffee tables. Bring your plants close to you and watch them flourish. There are many different types of plants to choose from, such as an orchid or a trio of plants. There are many different types of plants to choose from, such as an orchid or a trio of plants. A display such as this would be incomplete without plants that have beautifully patterned leaves. It is important to choose the appropriate size of plant stands according to the size of the table, you can go for a big one or can choose several small ones. You have to keep in mind that if plant pot having a drainage hole, then you have to use a saucer to protect the table floor. Original Source: factinfo360.blogspot.com
Home Gutter Maintenance
Cleaning gutters can be a daunting and dreaded task, but as we'll see in this article, it's a must! So read on to know more: How do I know if gutters need cleaning? Maybe the easiest way to see if your gutters need cleaning, without going up onto the roof, of course, is by looking up on a rainy day! If you see that the rain is flowing from anywhere except the drainpipe. If so, gutter cleaning is needed. But let's look at the other telltale signs: 1. Gutter sagging: You need to clean your gutters, so they don't clog with leaves and other dirt. Once they are blocked, the water can no longer flow away. So for every litre of water stuck in the gutter, 1 kilo is added. On long gutters, that, plus other debris, can sum up to a lot of weight! That extra weight causes extra stress, which can eventually break the guttering and cause it to sag. 2. Stained walls: After a rainy day, if you see streaks of dirt or unusual stains under your gutters, then chances are that the water is running over, bringing dirt along with it, as it has nowhere else to go. 3. Larger than usual puddles: The whole point of gutters is to take the water away from your house. If you see big puddles around your home, it could be a sign that the gutters are no longer taking that water away! 4. Birds and other animals: What do birds use to make their nests? Twigs? Leaves? Exactly, and a dirty gutter is full of both of them! So if you see a lot of birds coming and going from your gutters, especially around nesting season, you can be assured that your gutters need cleaning! What about other animals? They might not make the same nests, but many rodents will love to bunk down in a leaf bed! And what do rodents attract? Snakes, another good reason to clean your gutters! 5. Roof garden: If you see that flowers and other plants are sprouting from your roof guttering, the chances are that it's time for a clean! Why? Rotten leaves and other natural debris like dust make good makeshift compost. Compost and water = the perfect environment for your new roof garden! How often should gutters be cleaned? This is a more difficult question to answer. What if I asked you how long is a piece of string? (Twice as long as half its length, but that's for a more philosophical article!) Generally speaking, gutters need to be cleaned twice a year, but certain factors, like if you have overhanging trees, will mean you need to clean your gutters a lot more often! What happens if you don't clean your gutters? It might seem like a trivial matter, but if left uncleaned, it can cause significant problems! 1. It can cause foundation damage. In addition, heavy rains falling on the same stop will soften the soil and even erode the soil surrounding your foundations. This will cause cracks to appear. In the colder areas where it freezes, those cracks can fill with water, which will cause much more problems! 2. Trapped water + wooden building are a recipe for disaster! The dampness can cause the wood to root, weakening the structure. It can also allow rodents and other vermin to enter your house. 3. Creepy crawlies. The same rotten, humid debris that can make you a not so lovely roof garden can also attract all kinds of insects. Of course, if the weather changes for the worse, they'll look for a dry place to hide out, which will probably be inside your house! But that's the least of your insect worries! Insects like termites and carpenter ants are also are attracted to the rotten leaves, and once they've finished the starter, they will probably move on to the main course, your lovely wooden walls, windows, etc. 4. Roof and basement leaks. The excess water has to go somewhere, and that might be your roof space or even your basement! But, of course, this can cause more problems: rotten roof timbers, black mould, water damage, flooding, short circuits and so forth. How to clean your gutters? First of all, you should know that gutter cleaning can be a dangerous task! For example, did you know that 4.5 Australians die every year in ladder-related accidents? And many more are seriously injured! So make sure your ladder is safely placed. If you want to read more about height safety systems, take a look at my other article: Beginners guide to height safety systems or, better yet, talk to a professional about ladder brackets. Now I've warned you about being safe, let's get back to the subject at hand, gutter cleaning: 1. Wear the right clothes! Gutter cleaning is a dirty job! So it's best to wear a long-sleeved shirt, work trousers, and of course, gloves! You don't know what you're going to find up there. 2. You must also make sure that the ladder won't be leaning on the gutter, which could cause it to crack or push it out of place. And as we said before, make sure your ladder is safe and won't slip while you're working. 3. Slowly but surely, remove all debris from the gutter. Be careful not to use anything that might damage the gutter as you're cleaning it. You can buy specialised tools, but you can use an old rubber spatula from the kitchen. • TIP: You might want to place something on the floor below where you will be working, making cleaning up more straightforward once you've clean the gutters. 4. Once all the solid and semi-solid material has been removed, rinse the gutters with water, preferably using a hosepipe. Doing this will also help you find any leaks. 5. Does anything need repairing? Sagging or loose gutters? Leaks? Maybe water damage in the roof itself? 6. Once everything is in tiptop working order, you'll need to clean all the mess you will have made on the floor below. Is it better to call a professional? Now that you've read the dangers and steps needed to clean your gutters, you probably know the answer to this question. There are multiple factors you need to think about before making a decision. First, do you feel up to the job? Second, do you have the right tools? A long enough ladder? Before you decide, why not ask for a free quote? Once you hear the price, you might decide that the DIY path is not worth the trouble! If you're in the area of Sydney, why not go directly to the best gutter cleaner? Sydney Gutter Clean has more than 20 years of experience with thousands of satisfied clients. Not only will they clean your gutters, but they will also make sure your gutters are as good as new! And once they've finished, they guarantee to leave no mess! So visit the gutter cleaning Sydney website today! You'll see much more detailed information and can request a free consultation. You won't regret it! Sydney Gutter Clean Address: 287/495 Pacific Hwy, Crows Nest NSW 2065 Phone: (02) 8020 5777 Website: https://www.gutterclean.com.au/
Guide: How To Cut Down A Tree
When Should A Tree Be Cut Down? Do you have a tree on your property that needs removing? Maybe the tree is too close to your property or too close to your neighbour's property. Perhaps the tree is dying and could become a hazard. Or you're concerned for the safety of your family and neighbours. If you're considering removing a tree, whatever the reason may be, this guide will help you through the process. It is always recommendable to ask professional advice about tree removal. A trained Arborist might save the tree if needed and will best know how to remove it. Tree Removal: Pros And Cons. Pros: Safety: A hazardous tree can cause a LOT of damage, even death! Or, if you think back to the massive bushfires, a large canopy of trees close to your property could be a problem. Space: You make extra space in your garden! Trees can take up a lot of room. Depending on your garden, it might be taking up a lot of valuable space needed for other projects. Cons: Value: Removing trees from your property can devalue it. A study conducted in 2017 by AECOM stated that a "10 per cent increase in the leaf canopy of street trees could increase the value of properties by an average of $50,000" in the Sydney area. Beauty: Fewer trees can make your garden look less attractive. The aesthetic value of a tree can make your garden look more mature, as long as it's looked after, of course. Shade: The shade produced by trees can reduce your energy bill by up to 800$ a year! Permanent: Once tree removal has taken place, there's no going back! Trees take years to grow; depending on the tree, it might take decades or even centuries to grow back. Special Permissions For Tree Removal You should always check to see if local laws protect the tree you wish to remove. If you cut down a tree or even prune a protected tree by law without receiving the proper approval, you can be fined up to $1.1 million by the Land and Environment court! What permits you will need for tree removal depends on your state and local council. You can contact your local council for more information on tree preservation orders and local environment plans. Or you can contact a specialist tree cutting company, like Cutting Edge Tree Maintenance in Newcastle NSW, who will help you through the entire process. Can Cutting A Tree Down Be Dangerous? There are many reasons why cutting down a tree can be very dangerous. The tree can fall on someone or something. The tree can fall in an unexpected direction; it can be affected by the wind or become interlocked with surrounding trees. Using power tools without the proper training can also be a dangerous task! If you feel you don't have the experience needed, don't hesitate to contact a trained specialist. Now you know the pros, con, dangers and permissions needed, let's look at how you cut down a tree! How To Cut Down A Tree: Before you start to cut down your tree: You MUST use all the necessary safety equipment! Eye protection, ear protection, work gloves, steel-toe cap boots. Cutting down a tree can be a dangerous task! Using the proper safety equipment might save your life! Plan your escape route! Make sure you have a clear path to get out of the way of a falling tree! You will need the right tools. In this guide, we will talk about how to cut down a tree using power tools, specifically, a chainsaw, plus a tree-felling wedge and a hammer, all of which makes the job a lot easier. Of course, it can be done with hand tools, e.g. with a saw or an axe, but this is considerably more difficult! Remember, good tools are half the work! Inspect the area! Ensure there is nothing that the falling tree could harm; power lines, structures, fences, pets, etc. The tree will naturally fall in the direction it is leaning to; you must clear this area and a 45º angle on either side of where you expect the tree to fall. Don't forget to consider the height of the tree and how far the tree will fall! Next, once you know that you and everyone around you are safe, you can move on to the next step: First of all, you need to cut a notch into the tree. Make the initial cut at a 70-degree angle. The second cut should be horizontal, meeting the bottom of the first cut. The notch needs to reach about a quarter of the way through the tree. The notch should also be facing in the direction you wish the tree to fall. On the opposite side of the tree, you need to make the third cut, horizontally, slightly higher than the second cut of the notch. Do not cut all the way through the trunk. It's best to leave about 10 per cent of the width to work as a hinge as the tree falls. Depending on the width of the tree, you will need the tree-felling wedge. This will stop the weight of the tree from blocking the chain. The wedge can also be driven into the cut with a hammer to topple the tree. Once the tree begins to fall, get out of the way! Congratulations, by now, you should have cut down your tree! But you will need to cut the tree into smaller pieces so that it can be removed from your property. How to cut a tree into pieces for removal or firewood: Removing the branches: This first step is called limbing—the act of removing all the branches from a tree. Be very careful when removing branches! Some branches will be under tension caused by the tree's weight, and others will be holding the tree in place. Removal of either type can be dangerous, as the branch can flick, or the whole tree can move. Removing the tree trunk: Once the branches are removed, the tree trunk must be cut into manageable pieces; this is called bucking. Look where the trunk might compress, or drop when cut, pinching the saw blade. It is best to cut one-third of the way through the side where you think the trunk will compress and then finish the cut from the other side. This technique can also be used when part of the tree is being supported, and cutting away the support may cause compression. When needed, a wedge can be used to stop the trunk from compressing. Also, make sure that the blade never touches the floor, as it can dull the blade or even snap the chain. How To Make It Fall In The Direction You Want? If you have a tree leaning in a specific direction, and it's needed to fall in another, you'd best call a professional; this requires special tools and technical know-how. Many factors make this difficult and should never be done by an amateur. If you feel like you would prefer to talk directly to a trained Arborist after reading all of this, call Cutting Edge Tree Maintenance in Newcastle, NSW today. They are known as Newcastle's #1 tree cutting, tree removal and maintenance company in the area. They offer free consultations and can provide other solutions if you'd prefer to keep that tree! So why not visit their site now for more information. Cutting Edge Tree Maintenance Address:  42 Wakal St, Charlestown NSW 2290, Australia Phone: (02) 4003 4400 Website: https://newcastletreeandstumpremoval.com.au/ 
Abies numidica
The total extent of occurrence (EOO) of forests containing Abies numidica is estimated to be less than 30 km2. The actual area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be less than 1 km² (8 km2using standard IUCN methodology). Even though the area is protected by a National Park, there has been a continual loss in EOO, AOO and a decline in the quality of habitat as a result of forest fires, collection of firewood and grazing. This species is therefore listed as Critically Endangered. Located on Mt. Babor and Mt. Tababort, in the Djebel Babor Mountains which forms part of the Petite Kabylie Mountain range which runs parallel to the Mediterranean coast. Most reports give the EOO of the Babor forest asca.23.67 km² in which Abies numidica has an EOO of 2.5 km². However a specially commissioned study of the forests (Technoexportstroy 1970)) gives the overall forest as 27.3938 km² and theAbiescomponent as low as 0.8188 km² . The actual AOO is not known but is assumed to be less than 1 km² A single population with a very restricted range. Knowledge of the population is very poor due to the fact that access to the area is highly restricted because of security problems. Occurs in humid montane mixed forests on north- and east-facing steep calcareous slopes. The climate is particularly humid and cold, with annual precipitation of 2,500 mm, much of which falls as snow during the winter. The summers are dry and typical of a Mediterranean climate with an average of 18°C and a winter minimum of -1°C, with extreme frosts of between -8 to -10°C (Gharzouli, 2007); however the northern slopes tend to be wetter due to their proximity to the coast. The annual rainfall is between 1,500-2,000 mm. Abies numidica has an altitudinal range of between 1,850-2,000 m. Typically they cover the mountain summits where they occur as pure stands (rare) or are co-dominant withCedrus atlantica, Quercus faginea, Acer obtusatum, Populus tremula,Sorbus aria andS. torminali swith the occasional tree ofTaxus baccata. Abies numidica is threatened by a combination of factors including fire, fuel-wood collection and grazing by herds of cattle and goats in the summer. It appears that the young saplings are unable to establish due to a combination of dense under-storey and deep winter snow. The threats to the forest and endemic species are presumed to be ongoing, although the difficulties of access to the site (especially in winter) afford some degree of protection.
Austrocedrus chilensis
Austrocedrus chilensis is a long-lived conifer species capable of living for up to 1,500 years. It has many present-day threats including harmful pathogens, grazing, habitat loss through natural or human-set fires, invasive non-native tree species, establishment of plantation trees and hydroelectric schemes. Even though it has an estimated area of occupancy (AOO) of 1,860 km2 which is within the 2,000 km2 threshold for listing as Vulnerable, for the majority of its global distribution, of which 75% of its AOO occurs in Argentina, there is no net loss of individuals due to good regeneration after disturbance. It has therefore been assessed as Near Threatened as it almost qualifies for listing under criterion B2ab(i,ii,iii,v). Endemic to Argentina and Chile where it is mainly confined to the Andes. In Argentina it occurs in the Andes between Prov. Neuquén and Prov. Chubut. It has a scattered natural distribution from 36° 30' and 39° 30'S and more continuously between 39° 30'S and 43° 35'S, along a 60-80 km wide strip (Seibert 1982). In Chile it occurs in both the Andes and in the Coastal Cordillera. In the Andes it is found in a series of disjunct populations from Region V (Province Los Andes 32° 29'S), to Region X (Province Palena, 34º 38'S) in an altitudinal range of between 250-2,200 m. In the Coastal Cordillera it occurs infrequently in a few scattered locations between Region VIII (Province Arauco 37º 30'S) and Region X (Province Valdivia 40º 20'S) where its altitudinal range is between 100-500 m (Hechenleitner et al. 2005). It has an estimated total area of occupancy (AOO) of 1,860 km2 (Chile is 449 km2 (Catastro dataset, 1999)); Argentina 1,411 km2 (Rusch et al. 2002). Towards the western end of the range of Austrocedrus in Argentina, particularly in peri-urban areas there has been decrease over in the past 50-60 years due to illegal cutting. However, in the east of its range, towards the steppe vegetation, there has been a noticeable expansion in its range and this trend represents an overall net gain for Austrocedrus in Argentina. In contrast, in Chile there is a net loss (Le Quesne pers. comm.). Austrocedrus chilensis forms a large tree up to 20 m tall, with a trunk 1-2 m across. Typically it has a pyramidal habit. In its most northerly location near to El Asiento, it is capable of living for up to 1,500 years. In Argentina and Chile it is associated with a range of species depending on latitude, altitude, aspect, rainfall and soil type. It normally favours more xeric conditions than those tolerated by rainforest species (Veblen et al. 1995). In the northern part of its range in Chile, at altitudes of between 900 and 1,600 m, it grows with species which form part of the sclerophyllous forest type such as Cryptocarya alba, Kegeneckia oblonga, Lithrea caustica and Quillaja saponaria. In some locations it can also grow in pure open stands at the tree-line, for example, in Region VIII there are large stands on steep volcanic slopes of Volcán Antuco (1,000-1,200 m). In Central Chile it can also form stands in association with Nothofagus obliqua. At the lower altitudes it sometimes grows along rocky, river margins and is often associated with Prumnopitys andinus (Hechenleitner et al. 2005). In Argentina it generally occurs east of the more mesic Nothofagus forests in the rain-shadow of the Andes (Veblen et al. 1995). In the Patagonian steppe, scattered trees occur on rocky outcrops surrounded by a matrix of grasses and low shrubs, with an annual rainfall as little as 500 mm. A total of 89 understory species were recorded in Austrocedrus stands in Argentina which included eight tree species. Commonly associated woody species include: Araucaria araucana, Embothrium coccineum, Lomatia hirsuta, Maytenus boaria, M. chubutensis, Nothofagus antarctica, N. dombeyi, N. pumilio, Embothrium coccineum. Its estimated AOO of 1,411 km2 in Argentina comprises: 819.16 km2 is pure Austrocedrus forest, 534.4 km2 is mixed with Nothofagus spp. and 50.29 km2 is mixed with Araucaria aruacana. The most northern subpopulation is 32°29’S near to El Asiento; here the trees are widely spaced and grow in a water-stressed environment and can live up to 1,300 years (Schlegel 1962). There are a wide range of threats to the population in Argentina and Chile. These include logging (mainly historic), harmful pathogens, grazing, invasive non-native tree species, habitat loss through natural or human-set fires and establishment of plantation trees. More recently there have been concerns regarding climate change and the effects of hydroelectric schemes in Chile. In Argentina the North American conifer Pseudotsuga menziesii, although only established as a plantation crop over the past 25 years, is already considered as a serious invasive species in Austrocedrus forests (Orellana and Raffaele 2010). Austrocedrus is extremely vulnerable to the detrimental effects of cattle grazing on post-fire regeneration (Blackhall et al. 2008). Since 2003, when the insect pest Cinara cupressi was first detected in Chile, it has quickly become established throughout the country where it has caused yellowing of the foliage, branch dieback, and eventually tree death, depending on the severity and duration of the infestation (Baldini et al. 2008, Penna and Altmann 2009). Increasingly over recent years, there has been decline and mortality throughout its range caused by the condition known as ‘mal del ciprés’. This condition, which was first recognized 60 years ago, is still poorly understood but the symptoms originate in the root system and cause loss of vigour and defoliation of the crown (Havrylenko et al. 1989, Hennon and Rajchenberg 2000). This is possibly caused by the pathogen Phytophthora austrocedrae. However, even taking these negative effects into account, post-disturbance regeneration, in the majority of its distribution in Argentina, is very good and as a result there is no net loss of sexually mature individuals (Kitzberger pers. comm.). This is not the case in Chile where there is a net loss, particularly in the drier parts of its range in central Chile (Le Quesne pers comm.). Timber was historically used for construction and making furniture. The wood is fragrant and has a durable quality suitable for outdoor use (panelling and outdoor furniture). The species is grown as an ornamental by arboreta and botanical gardens, but is not commonly seen in trade. Austrocedrus subpopulations show evidence of significant inbreeding and recent bottlenecks, but are still genetically diverse (Souto et al. 2012). Austrocedrus-dominated dryland forests of northern Patagonia are reservoirs of genetic diversity and might therefore be relatively resilient to climate-influenced disturbances. Studies show that Austrocedrus in the dryland steppe is capable of regeneration from fire refugia (Veblen and Lorenz 1988), passive restoration strategies should also include cattle exclusion from these areas (Blackhall et al. 2008). The use of local germplasm for active restoration initiatives could also play its part in increasing the population size and counteracting inbreeding effects, however, it is crucial that a local seed source is used (Souto et al. 2012). Predicted climate change gives the opportunity for restoration trials in order to establish the species beyond its current range into new suitable areas. Since species richness and stand structure of Austrocedrus vary depending on the type of landscape, probably in response to climatic and disturbance levels, special concern should be given to the presence of nurse species, genetic structure, along with the community structure and composition (Souto et al. 2012). Austrocedrus is afforded protection in many national parks throughout Argentina and Chile. In Chile some of the largest protected areas are in Reserva Nacional Río Clarillo, R.N. Río de los Cipreses and Parque Nacional Laguna del Laja. In Argentina about 57% of Austrocedrus forests have some form of protection.
7 Essential Tips For Butyl Pond Liner Installation
Have you decided to install a butyl pond liner but need to acquaint yourself with the basics? If yes, then you have landed on the right blog post. This detailed guide will discuss the steps you must follow to achieve this objective swiftly. But before we talk about the installation process, gathering information about the basics of pond liners is vital. So, let's kickstart our informative journey without any further delay: What Are Pond Liners, And Why Do You Need Them? Any pond is incomplete without a pond liner. Failing to install it in your pond could lead to water leakage through the pond base. A pond liner is a watertight shell or material that is designed in a fashion to create the base of a pond. Along with preventing any water leakage, it helps keep water at predictable levels. By installing a pond liner, you can stay assured that your fish will never be waterless. Also, you will only require marginal maintenance to retain water levels. Now, let's find out what pond liners are made up of in the following section: What Are Pond Liners Made Out Of? Pond liners are primarily made from rubber, EPDM, Butyl, HDPE and PVC. These can be a sheet or shaped, soft or hard. Each of the liners tends to come with its pros and cons. Some of the PVC pond liners are less flexible and shaped into a pond. High-Density Polyethylene or HDPE is another pond liner option. It is a polymer that is made out of thermoplastic. Like PVC, soft and rigid versions are available. These are known for their hard-wearing properties. Another popular material that is used for the creation of pond liners is Butyl. Talking about this option, it is a kind of rubber used in inner tubes and tyres. It is soft and light yet hard-wearing, making it a suitable option as a pond liner. The EPDM or Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer is a rubber often employed in construction and on roofs. It is another best material for creating a pond liner as it is highly flexible and pliable. Finally, talking about RPE or Reinforced Polyethene is another common material used to create pond liners. These specific liners are well known for their water resistance capability and flexibility. The Pros And Cons Of Pond Liner Materials Now that we are familiar with common pond liner materials, it is time to move further in our discussion by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each material. So, let's find out: Butyl Pond Liners People most commonly use this type of pond liner for gardens. Butyl pond liner UK is well-known for its wide range of benefits. Pros This material is considered safe for a majority of fish species. It is resistant to UV and temperature. Along with being pliable, Butyl is incredibly easy to handle. So, you will only need to put minimal effort into cutting and moulding this material. Cons In this case, you will find it challenging to combine pieces as it is hard to seam. It is prone to tears and punctures. PVC Pond Liners PVC pond liners are the most common and cost-effective option, making those suitable for employment in DIY projects. Pros It is known to be flexible in some forms. This option is easy to install and handle and resistant to chemicals. It is incredibly cheap and plentiful. Cons PVC, in some forms, can prove dangerous to fish, so you should always check before making a purchase. This option is susceptible to weather and UV radiation, and therefore, it demands proper protection. EPDM Pond Liners The popularity of EPDM pond liners is on the higher side as these are pliable, plentiful and resistant to many things. Pros It is highly flexible and soft, which makes it easy to shape. This particular option is robust and resistant to weather and temperature. It is considered safe for fish. Cons Careful handling is necessary as it is more susceptible to solvents and chemicals. The cost of this option is higher than PVC and HDPE. EPDM is tough to seam, which could make it challenging for you to join pieces together. HDPE Pond Liners HDPE pond liners are commonly employed in small lakes and larger ponds. Being a common material, it tends to have several applications. Pros It is a stiff, robust and cost-effective option. These liners are waterproof. A pond installer can find it easy to install these liners. HDPE is durable and resistant to chemicals and UV rays. Cons If you are not an expert, you may find it challenging to carry out the installation process as it is complex to shape and work with. Assigning the installation task to an experienced professional is a good idea. RPE Pond Liners Another standard option for ponds is the RPE pond liners. These liners have gained much recognition as they offer several advantages to HDPE. Pros RPE is easy to handle, pliable and sturdy. It is easy to sew. This option is resistant to punctures. These pond liners are considered safe for fish. It is resistant to UV rays. Cons These are comparatively tricky to handle compared to softer PVC or Butyl liners. The cost of this option is on the higher side. As it is a relatively new option, it is essential to collect more data to prove its longevity. Other than these, some other materials used in pond liners include FPP, rubber, etc. Out of all these, you can choose any options that suit your preference and unique requirements. If you find selecting between the pond liners challenging, you can take Butek Ponds' help. They are a reputed pond liner manufacturer in the UK. You can find a wide variety of pond liner options on their website, be it a box weld pond liner, butyl pond liner UK or any other. The best part is that all of these are available at competitive pricing. Pond repair kits are also available at the Butek Ponds' online store. How To Install A Butyl Pond Liner (Key Steps To Employ) This section will discuss the approaches to installing a butyl pond liner. So, let's find out: 1. Butyl liners are incredibly flexible, allowing one to reshape this into the shape of a pond quickly. It is a little heavy, and we recommend laying them out on a warm day as the heat makes it more malleable and flexible. It would help if you initiated installing this option from the centre and then laid the liner outwards. Your main goal should be to make it as flat as possible. Also, attempt to run it up, especially to the top portion of the pond and all over the ground. While doing so, you should be mindful of hiding the liner. It helps in ensuring that the finished installation seems professional. 2. Preformed liners are typically made of glass fibre or plastic and are sturdy and rigid. It would be best if you fit these exactly into the level and hole. 3. Maintaining the right level is vital for every pond. Your primary focus should be to invest some of your time in levelling the pond. If you attempt to fill up the pond at the last stage, the pond may need to be appropriately flattened. This flaw can even show up. So, to avoid this problem, you can use a spirit level to check the pond at the bottom and all points closely. This way, you can ensure that it is appropriately levelled before you fit the liner. 4. It is crucial to lay a butyl liner from the pond's centre towards the outside. Also, you should make sure to pleat it carefully on shelves. By doing so, you can get the liner as flat as possible. 5. You should also ensure that you adequately fill the pond before trimming the liner. You can use bricks, especially along the rim, to secure it in position. In this case, you can leave an overhang that requires camouflaging with stones and plants. 6. It is the stage where you can start filling the water in your pond. You can use tap water to fill the pond. 7. Butyl liners are prone to puncture instances. To avoid this problem, it would be a good idea to eradicate all the sharp objects and stones from the area. Now, as a precautionary step, you should focus on lining the site before you lay the Butyl liner with the help of a protective fleece to preserve and prolong the liner's life. Essential Tips To Follow For Maintaining And Caring For A Garden Pond It is always suggested to carry out regular pond maintenance as it is considered suitable for aquatic life. You can enjoy a great ecosystem and preserve its natural appeal with adequate care and maintenance. We will talk about some of the critical maintenance and caring tips in the below section that you can follow. Let's begin with this: Make efforts to clean your pond regularly. Focus on growing aquatic plants Carry out proper management of the nearby plants. Maintain the appropriate water level. Try to maintain the right temperature. Employ different strategies to control algal growth. Repair any leaks, if present. Conclusion Garden Ponds lined with the help of a pond liner tend to provide a wide diversity of pond-building designs. However, proper planning is vital to create the preferred look. The tips we have enlisted in the above section will be valuable. Butek Ponds is the perfect place to reach out with your requirements. They are dedicated to manufacturing the best quality bespoke pond liners per your needs. Contact them today to learn more.
Do snake plants do better inside or outside?
Snake plants are native to Southern Asia, the Islands of Madagascar, and Africa. Snake plants are also known as mother-in-law’s tongue. There are approx 70 different species available of snake plants the most common species is Trifasciata. It is available in two forms: Bird nest sansevieria; it has curly leaves and is short approx 12 inches and the second is with tall upright leaves and can grow 3 to 4 feet. A gold bordered leaved plant is known as mother-in-law’s tongue and all Green leaves plants are called snake plants. Snake plants are grown for their foliage although they also produce flowers but they are tiny and grow in a bunch on long stems. The flowers of snake plants are small in number and size and pollinated by moths that is why they don't produce many seeds. They eventually produce berries outdoors. There are no moths indoors to pollinate the flowers of the snake plants. They are produced by spreading through underground rhizomes Although they also can be grown from seeds. The shorter type snake plant spreads rapidly and becomes invasive in tropical areas. How to grow indoors Generally, snake plants are grown indoors and they are adaptable to low light levels. It flourishes best in a sunny spot but a little sunlight is also okay. Let the soil dry out slightly before the next watering. Clay pots are best for Snake plants as clay is porous. Clay pots allow the soil to dry more quickly compared to plastic pots. The plastic pot holds moisture and the moist soil can cause root rot in plants. Dry conditions are suitable for this plant. Use cactus potting soil for Snake plants as it provides the proper drainage that snake plants need. Underwatering and overwatering are harmful to Snake plants and can kill them. Keep them away from drafty windows during the winter. Being tropical plants, they are very sensitive to cold temperatures. The temperature between 70 degrees Fahrenheit to 90 degrees Fahrenheit is suitable for Snake plants. Snake plants grow very fast so you should repot them annually. Use a shallow and wide container otherwise, your container may crack. A container gives a secure base to the snake plant. The Spring season is best for repotting and fertilization. Use a balanced fertilizer diluted to half strength. You can also fertilize the plant in the growing season in August again. Don't fertilize the plant during winter because it is the rest time of plants they don't grow actively. How to grow outdoors You can grow snake plants outdoors. Snake plants are known for easy to grow and tough plants but they need good drainage. Overwatering can cause root rot and they will die. They prefer the dryness that is why they are most suitable for xeriscape landscapes and dessert. In arid conditions, the thick cuticles on the leaves of the snake plants prevent them from drying out. Snake plants can grow in moderate light although they prefer full sunlight. Low light can cause a weak and final plant. Propagation Snake plant can be grown from seeds but generally, it is propagated from divisions. Spring season is the time for division. First of all, cover the surface with a newspaper. Use a knife around the edge of the pot to loosen the soil. Snake plants are grown by underground rhizomes. Use sharp garden shears or a knife to cut the rhizomes. Use cactus potting soil and plant the divisions in a shallow pot. Use a balanced fertilizer diluted to half-strength at this time. Should I buy snake plants specified for outdoor or indoor All snake plants can be grown indoors or outdoors; there are no separate snake plants for indoors or outdoors. If you want to place an indoor plants outdoors then do it gradually. Snake plants need full sun outdoors. If it is not getting enough sunlight then it will lose its color. Provide six to eight hours of sunlight each day. Don't grow snake plants in clay soils that require well-drained soil.
Beautiful & Inspiring Landscape Designs For Your Garden!
So you are ready for a change and want to refresh your garden but don’t know quite where to start? The outdoor area of our homes is where we are often most likely to be entertaining our guests, especially during the summer months! Adding more flora, trees, lighting and outdoor seating can really brighten up your home exterior and create an inviting place for you and your guests to enjoy. However, the world of landscaping is not always easy to navigate, and with so many styles available these days, it can be difficult to know which one to choose. But with some inspiration and the help of an expert team of landscapers, you will soon be transforming your garden into a beautiful and functional outdoor space that you, your family and friends will love to spend time in! Here are some stunning projects that can spark your imagination and help you decide which landscaping design is the perfect one for you. Modern, Minimalistic, and Functional The first exceptional landscaping idea we will look at is this beautiful garden designed by Custom Creations, based in Sydney, one of the most reputable landscape design and construction teams in NSW. They have used the house's original architecture and incorporated that into this modern and inviting garden design. Picture from Custom Creations As we can see here, the entryway is extremely eye-catching and has a very modern, minimal feel to it. It is lined by these exquisite Ornamental Pear Trees to add a very natural element and draw the eye down towards the house and the rest of the garden. The use of these modern paving stones brightens up the whole space and keeps a minimal aesthetic throughout. The symmetrical harmony of this design really helps it to stand out as chic and modern. Picture from Custom Creations Inside this garden, they have used a range of diverse plants and shrubs arranged perfectly to create many eye-catching textural forms. These well-chosen plants add colour whilst still maintaining that beautiful, minimalistic design. The clever design and use of pathways help divide each part of this fantastic outdoor space into its own distinct zone. Again, the attractive white stone paving helps tie this build together and keep a uniform and minimal design throughout. Picture from Custom Creations This wonderful build also includes an extremely functional yet attractive entertainment area! Relax in the minimal yet comfortable lounge area, complete with a table, sofa and chairs. Or start up a barbecue in the convenient outdoor kitchen space! Again, the well-thought-out colour palette works very well here, making it a truly stylish and minimal area. The industrial floating concrete bench and steel pergola combine beautifully with the wood panelling and garden foliage. The carefully chosen and high-quality materials used work to create a trendy, modern and yet still extremely natural atmosphere. This high-quality construction and stunning designs were implemented by one of Sydney's best landscape design and construction teams. Luxurious, Spacious, and Defined The next design is from Hurst House, a landscaping team based in the US. Picture from Hurst House Chicago This is a fantastic landscaping design for entertaining, socialising, or simply relaxing outdoors as a family. Its defined spaces work as a series of outdoor rooms, including a dining area, lounge, kitchen area, and even an outdoor spa underneath the beautiful white pergola. This provides lots of individual areas, where you can relax together or separately. The exquisite Bluestone paving and well-chosen materials make this design extremely luxurious. Trees are strategically placed in the centre of the garden, and the expertly placed greenery ties all the different areas together. Picture from Hurst House Chicago With the clever backyard illumination, firepit, and mood light coming down from the trees, this fantastic garden space can be used even after dark! There are even uplights hidden away among the ornamental pieces and shrubbery. The path lights direct you through the various areas and all the way down to the spa. Light, Rustic, and Natural The final design we will highlight was created by Trunorth Landscaping, also located in the US. It is a wonderful lakeside patio, complete with an entertainment area, firepit, and beautifully landscaped pathways. Picture from Trunorth Landscaping This design truly makes the most of the available space to include an elegant seating area with a fully functioning kitchen. The Techo Bloc stone panels give this area a beautiful and rustic feel. Due to the lakeside location and lack of large trees surrounding the area, this garden feels very light and spacious, leaving you with a fantastic view of the lake. This design also makes clever use of expertly placed lanterns, and a large firepit, to provide warmth and a bright atmosphere, even on an evening, so you can use this space all year round. Picture from Trunorth Landscaping They have also incorporated this natural flagstone paving and rustic Techo Bloc stone panels to create a design that flows beautifully with its surroundings. The well-chosen colours of the flowers and other foliage add lots of texture and really tie this space together to give it a natural, inviting feel. What Do We Learn? Each of these projects we have looked at vary greatly in style, size and budget. For example, although beautiful, the design shown from Hurst House would require a large plot of land and a significant amount of money. The first design shown by Custom Creations is an excellent example of practical yet stunning landscaping that makes the best use of available space and is achievable even on a smaller budget. They took the already existing style of the clients home and used this to design a modern yet functional space that could really enhance their quality of living. And by using high-quality materials, this space still maintains that luxury feel. We love how Custom Creations can create exceptional outdoor spaces that always fit with their client’s needs and budgets. They certainly have an eye for detail to design stunning garden landscaping that is attractive, practical and affordable. This kind of precision and attention to detail is definitely the mark of true landscape design and construction experts! You can scroll down to see more of their stunning builds on Instagram and discover not only how professional they are but also the expert construction and breath-taking landscaping they can achieve! To see more of their completed projects, check out this wonderful Sydney landscape design and construction business here! How can you contact Custom Creations Landscapes? Custom Creations has a team of carefully selected landscapers and highly skilled contractors, so you can be sure that the design and landscaping of your garden are in the best hands! They provide landscape design, construction, pool design and building services that are beautiful and functional to transform your home and outdoor space. To us, Custom Creations Landscapes have really stood out from the rest, with their professionalism and stellar communication and customer service. As a result, they can provide tailor-made design solutions for projects of all sizes and styles. In addition, they always make sure to use high-quality materials and plants so that every part of your outdoor space is built to the best possible standard. The team at Custom Creations will always work alongside you to ensure that they can create the perfect outdoor space for you that compliments your already existing home and living space. This will result in a garden that is not only visually attractive but reflects your individual lifestyle so that you can enjoy it for years to come. Contact Custom Creations today to find out how easy it is to achieve the beautiful garden space you have always dreamed of! Custom Creations Phone: 02 8065 4344 Website: Custom Creations Landscapes