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Pinus mugo - Dwarf mountain pine, European mountain pine, Mugo pine, Swiss mountain pine

Conservation Status
Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern
Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern. As this pine is widespread, with a large extent of occurrence (EOO), area of occupancy (AOO) and population, and in most cases occurs in areas where it is not threatened by human activities, and has few significant declines, it is assessed as Least Concern. Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata has a much more limited distribution and is restricted to mid-elevation peat bogs. Habitat loss due to afforestation and drainage has resulted in a reduction in its AOO and this subspecies has been assessed as Endangered. However, as this subspecies represents a relatively small part of the global population of Pinus mugo, the overall assessment for the species does not change. This species has received more names than any other conifer, some of these are still in use especially in eastern Europe. The species has two principal growth forms, commonly recognized as distinct taxa: a shrub-like, sometimes nearly decumbent form (subsp. mugo) and an upright shrub or erect tree (subsp. rotundata), which occupy different habitats. The shrubby form grows on mountain slopes and ridges generally from about 1,000 m to 2,300 m a.s.l. in the mountain ranges of Europe most exposed to storms associated with depression systems in the North Atlantic. Especially in the Carpathians, it forms dense mat-like thickets above montane forests dominated by Fagus or Picea; in the western Alps the upright form (subspecies) dominates on nutrient poor slopes. Pinus mugo in the eastern Alps may have replaced original Larch-Arolla pine woods which were disturbed by human activities and grazing of their animals. The species often occurs on dolomite limestone, but is in fact indifferent to soil type; this prevalence probably has historical reasons. While upright stands of Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata can have fairly rich plant communities, the species associated with the decumbent subsp. mugo are much fewer due to harsh environmental conditions, such as exposure and long-lasting snow cover. Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata occurs mostly in and around peat bogs and its habit, from shrub to upright tree, seems to depend on soil drainage with the low shrub form in wet moor habitat. No significant, range-wide threats have been identified for this species or for Pinus mugo subsp. mugo. Tourist and recreation-related developments (e.g. ski resorts and ski runs) could have some effect at a very localized level and acid rain in the eastern parts of its range may also be a problem (Boratynski et al. 2009). Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata has a more limited distribution than the typical subspecies and is also restricted to peat bogs. Many of these have been drained and afforested with Picea abies. As a result this subspecies has been assessed as Endangered (see Farjon 2013). The shrubby subspecies (mugo) of Dwarf mountain pine has been used in some parts of northern Europe to stabilize drifting sand dunes and as initial shelter belts for plantations with Scots pine in similar sandy areas. In horticulture it is mainly planted in spaces created by roundabouts and other types of road intersection, both in Europe and in the USA. For gardens many cultivars that remain more dwarfish than the subspecies mugo have been and are being selected, and some of these are suitable in larger rock gardens as they grow very slowly. For this reason this species has also been used in bonsai culture. The tree form (subsp. rotundata) is too uncommon and also grows too slowly to be of importance as a timber tree. Its horticultural interest is limited to arboreta, where it is often labelled as a distinct species (Pinus uncinata) and can grow into an erect small tree. Hybrids have been described between subsp. mugo and subsp. rotundata, and such plants may also occasionally be in cultivation. As with other pines, this species produces a resin that has some medicinal uses. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pines is considered antiseptic and diuretic. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic disorders. In the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers it is also used for respiratory complaints such as coughs and colds and a variety of skin problems, such as sores and boils. An essential oil obtained from the young twigs is used medicinally and also in woody perfumeries. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood. Pitch could also be obtained from the resin and a tan or green dye obtained from the needles and the wood has reportedly been used to make shoes (Plants for a Future 2014). A herbal tea is also made from the needles in Bulgaria (Frankis and Earle 1999). This species is recorded from more than 50 Natura 2000 protected areas throughout its range (EUNIS 2014), such as the Tatry National Park in Poland. It has been planted ornamentally and it is conserved ex situ in 154 botanic gardens worldwide (BCGI 2013). Seed is conserved in seed banks, such as in Paver, Italy (ENSCO 2014).
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DIY Address Number Wall Planter
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Ait Ben Haddou Kasbah
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17 stylish plants for hanging pots
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Agathis borneensis - Borneo kauri, Malayan kauri, Western dammar, Dammar minyak (Malay)
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Picea orientalis - Caucasian spruce, Oriental spruce, Aghmosavluri Nadzvi (Georgian), Jel Kavkasskaja, Jel Vostochnaya (Russian), Doğu Ladini (Turkish)
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Picea orientalis is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category but population monitoring as well as control over logging are necessary conservation actions to avoid future decline. The species makes up coniferous and mixed forests in upper montane zone covering large areas within the distribution range. This shade-enduring and moisture-loving tree usually grows on brown forest soils but can often be found  also on stony and rocky slopes from the Black Sea coast to the Central Greater Caucasus and the eastern ends of the Trialeti ridge on the Lesser Caucasus. It forms pure stands or is associated with Abies nordmanniana, Pinus kochiana (Pinus sylvestris var. hamata), Fagus orientalis. Oriental spruce dominated forest may have various types of undergrowth, of which the Colchic type made up of evergreen shrubs and dwarf trees such as Laurocerasus officinalis, Ilex colchica, Buxus colchica, Taxus baccata, Rhododendron spp. is worth special mentioning. Selective logging, agricultural land development and insect damage are the major threats to the species although these are not thought to be causing an overall decline. Oriental spruce is an important timber tree in the Caucasus, where it forms extensive pure stands, many of which are managed for forestry. It has also been introduced as a forestry plantation tree in countries in the eastern Mediterranean. The wood of this species is of good quality, comparable to that of Norway spruce, and is put to similar uses. Among these are construction, flooring, carpentry, furniture making, and parts of musical instruments. In horticulture, this spruce is sometimes grown as a Christmas tree, but more commonly as an amenity tree for parks and large gardens in many European countries and in the USA. A good number of cultivars is in the trade, among which are dwarf forms, forms with yellowish flushing leaves and those with 'mounding' habits. Picea orientalis occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, e.g. Meryemana Forest (Pontic Mts., Turkey),  Kintrishi, Ritsa, Algeti Protected Areas (Georgia), Teberda Nature Reserve (Russian Caucasus). Population monitoring; species based actions such as selective logging and trade management are needed. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/picea/picea-orientalis
Chia sẻ kinh nghiệm làm đẹp da (p2)
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How To Spray Paint Fresh Flowers
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Paying it Forward
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Larix griffithii - Sikkim larch, Himalayan larch, Binya (Nepalese), Xizang hongshan (Chinese)
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern Whilst logging of Larix griffithii occurs in some valleys, there are no reports that this has been or is causing a decline in the global population, which is widespread and numerous in large parts of the Himalayas. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern. The typical variety is also Least Concern and not assessed separately. Two varieties are recognized. The typical variety is relatively widespread in the eastern Himalayas while Larix griffithii var. speciosa (W.C.Cheng & Y.W.Law) Farjon is currently only known from NW Yunnan and SE Xizang. The typical variety is not threatened whereas var. speciosa has been separately assessed as Near Threatened. Larix kongboensis R.R.Mill, described from the Yarlung Zangbo river drainage in Xizang, is treated as a synonym of Larix griffithii var. griffithii. It occurs in pure forests up to the tree line, at lower elevations it is often mixed with Abies spectabilis, Abies densa, Pinus wallichiana, Picea spinulosa, Tsuga dumosa and Juniperus sp. Betula utilis and various large species of Rhododendron are the most common broad leaved trees associated with it. Logging would be of potential threat to this species if and where it was unsustainable, i.e. not allowing regeneration to productive age of the same species. Sikkim larch is of minor economic importance as a timber tree due to its occurrence in remote valleys and on high slopes. It was introduced to Britain in the 19th century but was not very successful and remains restricted to a few arboreta and other large gardens with collections of exotic trees, usually in countries or regions with a mild climate and rare occasions of frost. The main problem seems to be early flushing of leaves in regions with erratic warm spells in winter, which then get damaged by 'late' frosts. It would thus be expected to perform better in countries with a more continental, but not extreme winter cold climate. This species is present in some protected areas throughout its range. https://conifersgarden.com/encyclopedia/larix/larix-griffithii