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Picea orientalis - Caucasian spruce, Oriental spruce, Aghmosavluri Nadzvi (Georgian), Jel Kavkasskaja, Jel Vostochnaya (Russian), Doğu Ladini (Turkish)

Conservation Status
Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern
Picea orientalis is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category but population monitoring as well as control over logging are necessary conservation actions to avoid future decline. The species makes up coniferous and mixed forests in upper montane zone covering large areas within the distribution range. This shade-enduring and moisture-loving tree usually grows on brown forest soils but can often be found  also on stony and rocky slopes from the Black Sea coast to the Central Greater Caucasus and the eastern ends of the Trialeti ridge on the Lesser Caucasus. It forms pure stands or is associated with Abies nordmanniana, Pinus kochiana (Pinus sylvestris var. hamata), Fagus orientalis. Oriental spruce dominated forest may have various types of undergrowth, of which the Colchic type made up of evergreen shrubs and dwarf trees such as Laurocerasus officinalis, Ilex colchica, Buxus colchica, Taxus baccata, Rhododendron spp. is worth special mentioning. Selective logging, agricultural land development and insect damage are the major threats to the species although these are not thought to be causing an overall decline. Oriental spruce is an important timber tree in the Caucasus, where it forms extensive pure stands, many of which are managed for forestry. It has also been introduced as a forestry plantation tree in countries in the eastern Mediterranean. The wood of this species is of good quality, comparable to that of Norway spruce, and is put to similar uses. Among these are construction, flooring, carpentry, furniture making, and parts of musical instruments. In horticulture, this spruce is sometimes grown as a Christmas tree, but more commonly as an amenity tree for parks and large gardens in many European countries and in the USA. A good number of cultivars is in the trade, among which are dwarf forms, forms with yellowish flushing leaves and those with 'mounding' habits. Picea orientalis occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, e.g. Meryemana Forest (Pontic Mts., Turkey),  Kintrishi, Ritsa, Algeti Protected Areas (Georgia), Teberda Nature Reserve (Russian Caucasus). Population monitoring; species based actions such as selective logging and trade management are needed.
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How To Grow A Beautiful Oxycardium Plant At Home
Some indoor plants such as money plants are quite popular among Gardeners. Philodendron or Oxycardium plants are a great choice for those who don’t have sufficient time to care for plants. They are harder to kill and it is very easy to keep them healthy. Oxycardium plants are available in a variety of beautiful shades. They are suitable to keep as cheerful bushy plants or graceful trailers. You should know everything to grow a beautiful Oxycardium plant at home. Light One of the best aspects of Oxycardium plants' versatility is that they can thrive in low light conditions although they grow faster and produce more leaves when receiving medium to indirect light. But don't place them in direct sunlight. Watering Oxycardium plants can be grown in soil or just in water. Water them when half of the soil is dry while growing in soil. The leaves of Oxycardium appear wilted when it needs water. After watering plants they will show a perky appearance. If the leaves of plants are getting yellow and brown then it is an indication of overwatering and underwatering consequently. Philodendrons can be grown in a container with just water. Check the water closely; Oxycardium soaks the water faster than you anticipate. Don't change the medium of the plant either you are growing it in soil or water. The plant will not do well transferred to another medium. Location A south or west-facing window is the best for a philodendron plant. This is the best place where plants will get the right amount of light to thrive and will be protected from direct sunlight. You can also place It inside balconies. Repotting Oxycardium plants should be repotted when they become root bound around every two to three years. Plant them in well-aerated soil for good drainage. If you want a decorative pot for your Oxycardium plant then simply plant them in a Terracotta pot first and keep it inside the decorative pot. Using some pebbles in the bottom of the decorative pot will keep the Oxycardium plant from sitting in water. Fertilization Philodendrons can survive without fertilizer for years. However, you can fertilize them monthly because they are fast-growing plants. Use a half-strength solution of houseplant food in the spring and summer season once a month. In fall and winter, use fertilizer after every other month. The best time for fertilization is when the plant is producing new leaves. Pruning Oxycardium plant is perfect for hanging planters for table plants; they also can be enjoyed as trailing plants. Regular pruning is helpful to keep the plant lush and full. To promote bushy ness and encourage new growth, cut the leggy trails after a node. Use pruning shears or fingernails for pruning and make smooth cuts rather than Jagged. Propagation Oxycardium plants are very easy to propagate. Just pinch or cut a branch having at least a couple of nodes. Directly put the cutting into the water or soil and it will begin to grow very soon. Toxicity The Oxycardium plant is toxic and this is the main drawback to this plant. It can cause severe discomfort if ingested by pets or humans. They can feel the symptoms of burning and swelling on the lips, tongue, throat, vomiting, and diarrhea. The SAP of the plant also can cause skin irritation. Some common problems Curling leaves Curling leaves is the indication that the plant is not getting enough water. It can also occur due to overwatering because it drowns the roots. If the leaves are dropping or turning yellow, it is a sign of overwatering to solve this problem; water your plants less frequently. Insufficient amounts of water can cause the leaves of plants to turn brown. Don't keep long gaps between waterings. If the leaves turn brown then start watering them more and they will cure soon. Styling tip The large heart-shaped leaves of the philodendron plant add life to your living space. Oxycardium plants not only make your living room feel more tropical but also add texture and color to it. Use hanging planters or let it climb the walls with the help of trellis. Flexible trailing vines and large glossy heart-shaped leaves will make your living space more stylish.
Do snake plants do better inside or outside?
Snake plants are native to Southern Asia, the Islands of Madagascar, and Africa. Snake plants are also known as mother-in-law’s tongue. There are approx 70 different species available of snake plants the most common species is Trifasciata. It is available in two forms: Bird nest sansevieria; it has curly leaves and is short approx 12 inches and the second is with tall upright leaves and can grow 3 to 4 feet. A gold bordered leaved plant is known as mother-in-law’s tongue and all Green leaves plants are called snake plants. Snake plants are grown for their foliage although they also produce flowers but they are tiny and grow in a bunch on long stems. The flowers of snake plants are small in number and size and pollinated by moths that is why they don't produce many seeds. They eventually produce berries outdoors. There are no moths indoors to pollinate the flowers of the snake plants. They are produced by spreading through underground rhizomes Although they also can be grown from seeds. The shorter type snake plant spreads rapidly and becomes invasive in tropical areas. How to grow indoors Generally, snake plants are grown indoors and they are adaptable to low light levels. It flourishes best in a sunny spot but a little sunlight is also okay. Let the soil dry out slightly before the next watering. Clay pots are best for Snake plants as clay is porous. Clay pots allow the soil to dry more quickly compared to plastic pots. The plastic pot holds moisture and the moist soil can cause root rot in plants. Dry conditions are suitable for this plant. Use cactus potting soil for Snake plants as it provides the proper drainage that snake plants need. Underwatering and overwatering are harmful to Snake plants and can kill them. Keep them away from drafty windows during the winter. Being tropical plants, they are very sensitive to cold temperatures. The temperature between 70 degrees Fahrenheit to 90 degrees Fahrenheit is suitable for Snake plants. Snake plants grow very fast so you should repot them annually. Use a shallow and wide container otherwise, your container may crack. A container gives a secure base to the snake plant. The Spring season is best for repotting and fertilization. Use a balanced fertilizer diluted to half strength. You can also fertilize the plant in the growing season in August again. Don't fertilize the plant during winter because it is the rest time of plants they don't grow actively. How to grow outdoors You can grow snake plants outdoors. Snake plants are known for easy to grow and tough plants but they need good drainage. Overwatering can cause root rot and they will die. They prefer the dryness that is why they are most suitable for xeriscape landscapes and dessert. In arid conditions, the thick cuticles on the leaves of the snake plants prevent them from drying out. Snake plants can grow in moderate light although they prefer full sunlight. Low light can cause a weak and final plant. Propagation Snake plant can be grown from seeds but generally, it is propagated from divisions. Spring season is the time for division. First of all, cover the surface with a newspaper. Use a knife around the edge of the pot to loosen the soil. Snake plants are grown by underground rhizomes. Use sharp garden shears or a knife to cut the rhizomes. Use cactus potting soil and plant the divisions in a shallow pot. Use a balanced fertilizer diluted to half-strength at this time. Should I buy snake plants specified for outdoor or indoor All snake plants can be grown indoors or outdoors; there are no separate snake plants for indoors or outdoors. If you want to place an indoor plants outdoors then do it gradually. Snake plants need full sun outdoors. If it is not getting enough sunlight then it will lose its color. Provide six to eight hours of sunlight each day. Don't grow snake plants in clay soils that require well-drained soil.
Garden Equipment in Ireland | Coughlan Garden Equipment
Garden machinery in Ireland Garden Equipment keep the garden clean and attractive. Gardening is one of the most popular hobbies of most of the people in the world. Nursery Equipment in Ireland Nursery Equipment keep the nursery perfect and alluring. These days, planting is one of the most well known side interests of a great many people on the planet. Utilizations an assortment of nursery gear for care. This implies that certain individuals use garden hardware like digging tools, spades, wheel packs, and so forth, while others utilize programmed lawnmowers, like Automowers, Chainsaws, lawnmowers, Husqvarna, and so on We are a web-based provider to address your issues. Our hardware is a low bye and top notch materials garden gear for next working day conveyance. The following are some nursery making devices talked about: The Husqvarna 135 II is another lightweight and productive mortgage holder saw ideal for those searching for a trimming tool that is especially simple to begin and move. The minimized 3-wheeled mechanical cutter for proficient taking care of more open lawn regions. Appropriate for more modest yards up to 600 m and can likewise deal with slants with a slope of 25%. Battery yard cutter for medium-sized yards with expanded releasing width for problem cutting and least support. Husqvarna 135 II Chainsaw The Husqvarna 135 II is another lightweight and effective property holder saw ideal for those searching for a trimming tool that is astoundingly simple to begin and move. Husqvarna Automower 105 Husqvarna Automowers The conservative 3-wheeled automated trimmer for proficient taking care of more open lawn regions. Reasonable for more modest yards up to 600 m and can likewise deal with slants with a grade of 25%. Husqvarna LC 247iX Husqvarna Walk-Behind Mowers Battery grass cutter for medium-sized yards with expanded releasing width for issue cutting and least support. Website: -
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - Port Orford cedar, Gingerpine, Lawson's cypress, Oregon cedar, Port Orford cypress, Port Orford white-cedar, Port-Orford cedar
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened Port Orford Cedar (POC) is native to a limited area along the Pacific Coast from Coos Bay, Oregon, to the mouth of the Mad River near Arcata, California, USA.  Its range extends from the coast to about 50 miles inland.  There is also a small disjunct population in the Scott Mountains of California. This species occurs in the greatest abundance within about 64 km of the Pacific coast. Further inland, its distribution is patchy, and it is mostly limited to sites with sufficient soil moisture.  The expect this taxon to be down listed to Least Concern within the next 10 years provided that current conservation actions are successful and maintained. Until then, it is assessed as Near Threatened on the basis that its recent decline almost meets the criterion B2ab(iii) for listing as threatened. Although POC has a narrow geographic range, it occupies many different environments. The species is found at elevations from sea level to 1950 meters, in glacial basins, along streams, on terraces, and on mountain side-slopes from lower to upper one-third slope positions. POC shows adaptability to a wide range of summer evapotranspiration stress, from very high humidity along the coast to very low summer humidity inland.  Soils where POC is found are derived from many parent materials, including sandstone, schist, phyllite, granite, diorite, gabbro, serpentine, peridotite, and volcanics. At lower elevations it is often found on ultramafic soil types. POC has moderately high shade tolerance, and is more tolerant than Incense cedar, Sugar pine, Douglas fir and Western white pine, and less tolerant than Shasta red fir, Brewer spruce, White fir, Sitka spruce, Grand fir, Western red cedar, and Western hemlock.  Other studies show POC able to reproduce well in all but the darkest microsites, including late-successional stands.  Zobel and Hawk (1980) found POC to survive under shade as well or better than all its competitors except Western Hemlock. In addition to being shade tolerant, POC is tolerant of repeated fire (Hawk 1977).  Even as pole-sized trees, POC has a good chance of surviving fires (Zobel et al. 1985). Fire resistance is less than that of Douglas Fir, but greater than that of the true firs or Western Hemlock.  POC is often the first species to reinvade after fire. POC is characterized as having fairly low drought resistance (Zobel et al. 1985), and its requirements for moisture during the growing season may limit its natural distribution. POC is considered more drought tolerant than Western Hemlock and Sitka Spruce, but is less tolerant than Douglas fir, Jeffrey pine, Incense cedar, Sugar pine, and most other trees found in its range (Zobel et al. 1985). Much of the range of POC usually has wet winters, dry summers, relatively uniform temperatures, high relative humidity, and frequent summer fog. Away from the coastal influences, in the south and east portion of its range, rainfall, relative humidity, and summer fog are decreased, while the temperature fluctuations in both the summer and winter are greater (USDA-FS 1965). Moisture regime strongly influences plant community development within the range of POC. To most populations of POC, a consistent abundance of water seems a critical necessity (Zobel et al. 1985). Where douglas fir is present it out-competes POC for water.  Only in the northern part of the range does the ratio of available water to evapotranspiration compensate for this competition (Zobel et al. 1985). POC may out-compete Douglas fir in areas with low macronutrients, or cold or saturated soils. International trade in the timber has previously put enormous pressure on the remaining old growth stands. The spread of the introduced pathogen Phytophthora lateralis continues and limits successful regeneration in many areas, especially those accessible by road. The current range of POC falls within the traditional territories of numerous American Indian Tribes along the west coast of North America.  Included is the 5,400-acre forest of the Coquille Indian Tribe in west-central Oregon which is managed according to many of the Standards and Guidelines of adjacent Federal land.  POC continues to play a significant role in the cultural and religious life of many Tribes living within the POC range from west-central Oregon south through northwest California.  Specific information concerning where, how, what time of year, and by whom POC is harvested and used is restricted from distribution. Cedars of all types are considered the most used wood by native cultures of the Pacific Northwest.  Despite declining availability, the cultural importance of POC remains high given its physical and structural characteristics, distinctive appearance, and aroma.  The smells of POC also enhance the meaning of cultural rituals.  Known for its durability, POC has straight grain properties allowing it to be split evenly.  POC is sought as a source of planks for building traditional structures and for arrows or lances that support bone or stone projectile points.  However, shortages and diminishing accessibility to mature trees sometimes relegates POC to parts of a plank house or sweat lodge, such as benches or sidewalls.  This is also true for construction of canoes. POC has other traditional uses.  Boughs are used as brooms, and the bark and roots are peeled and finely shredded for use in making traditional clothing, basketry, nets, twine, mats, and other items.  Limbs may be twisted into rope. Unlike Western red cedar and Incense cedar, POC has limited medicinal value due to its highly toxic character as a diuretic.  Similarly, POC is less effective than Incense Cedar for preserving and storing perishable materials such as feathers, hides, and other materials.  POC typically does not have the cedar-closet aroma of other cedars. The declining availability of healthy, mature POC trees through the 20th century has increased the importance of remaining POC stands to Tribes.  Although the region has experienced an economic and cultural rejuvenation by the Tribes, a declining availability of POC due to several factors, including past timber cutting, disease, endangered species protection, fish protection, and land use allocations, hinders Tribal initiatives to restore and revive cultural traditions. Agencies issue permits for collection of special forest products including non-POC boughs, beargrass, and cones, but seldom issue permits for POC product collections.  Therefore, quantitative data concerning modern-day cultural uses of POC is highly variable among the Tribes and generally not readily available outside Tribal communities.  In general, however, use of POC is at modest levels. Maintenance of POC stands on Federal lands as a culturally-important species is important to Tribes and fulfills Federal policies and goals for accommodating traditional Tribal uses.  These uses are also consistent with the “American Indian Religious Act,” and other statutes that highlight the importance of traditional cultural uses of plants on Federal lands.  There are no effects to the exercise of those rights, because there are no off-reservation treaty reserved rights within POC range. POC shares the same decay-resistant properties as other cedars, such as Western red cedar and Incense cedar, and is used for posts, rails, and shakes.  Western red cedar and Incense Cedar are more sought after because they have a wider range and are more easily accessible. POC is in greatest demand for boughs during Christmas and to a lesser degree, for year-long floral arrangements.  Boughs have a graceful, flat, beaded-lace appearance that makes them ideal for tying continuous strands to a wire backing for garlands or for layering into Christmas wreaths. The foliage also combines beauty with durability and needle retention that allows it to be preserved with glycerin mixtures for long-lasting floral displays.
Turmeric, the Golden Spice - From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine
Turmeric is an ancient spice that has been used mainly in cooking. Turmeric is a powerful anti-inflammatory herb that’s been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. Turmeric, whose botanical name is Curcuma longa. It helps restore normal body functioning. It can provide relief from cold cough, skin disorders, bruises & wounds, flu, sore throat, muscle spasm, allergy, pain, etc. Turmeric health benefits Turmeric has many anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that not only keep illnesses at bay, Turmeric also treat pre-existing chronic health conditions. One of the most important compounds in turmeric is curcumin, which is responsible for most of turmeric’s potential health benefits. · Turmeric has Anti-Inflammatory properties – It has shown curcumin to be highly effective in reducing inflammation. · Immunity Booster - Turmeric also boosts immunity levels. Its anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal properties protect us from a variety of infections. · It has anticancer properties - turmeric has anti-cancerous properties, specifically for breast, bowel, stomach, and skin cancer cells · It can help with depression - Turmeric has curcumin may increase serotonin and dopamine—two brain chemicals that affect your mood. It may also help you respond better to unexpected stress. · It improves skin health - Turmeric can help with skin conditions such as eczema, ulcers, psoriasis, and wounds. Here are the top super health benefits of turmeric and curcumin. Turmeric benefits for skin Turmeric is used extensively to treat acne, hyperpigmentation, and remove unwanted hair. It is also beneficial in skincare for babies. Anti-cancer Properties:- Turmeric benefits acne because not only is it a natural antiseptic to keep the bacteria from spreading, but it’s anti-inflammatory, which takes down the redness and swelling of the blemish, Reduces Dark Circles:- Turmeric has anti-inflammatory, skin-lightening and microcirculation-boosting powers, and you've got a perfect recipe for fighting dark undereye circles Help Psoriasis and Eczema:- Besides having anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties that help target the source of conditions such as eczema, turmeric may also inhibit the activity of PhK, a protein associated with psoriasis. Turmeric benefits for hair Defeating dandruff:- A good massage with turmeric essential oil can help you get rid of dandruff problems. Curbing hair loss:- The antifungal quality of turmeric can rid your scalp of the infection which can be the end of hair fall. Treating scalp conditions:- The anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory qualities of turmeric make your scalp infection-free and healthy Is it healthy to drink turmeric every day? Yes, but make sure not to drink in excess quantity at all. Turmeric Water is hot in nature hence reducing the intake in summers especially for individuals with pitta dominant bodies. Also, it is not advisable to consume high doses of turmeric for a long period of time. Turmeric Tea Drops:- Potent nutrient drops of Turmeric – Vitamin B complex and Vitamin Add about 1-2 teaspoon or 10 -15 drops to a cup of warm water. And enjoy the turmeric tea. haldee water (Turmeric Hydrosol) is water-soluble nutrient-rich water of turmeric roots. This simple, quick, and convenient way of making tea help stick to the regular routine of drinking turmeric tea at home and while you are on a trip.
Picea sitchensis - Sitka spruce, Tideland spruce
Conservation Status Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern This spruce still covers vast tracts of coastal mainland and islands along the Pacific Coast of North America; it is also a pioneer after disturbance, either natural or from logging, and will return unless deliberately prevented. Consequently it is assessed as Least Concern. Picea sitchensis occurs from tidewater up to steep mountain sides in Alaska and British Columbia, generally to ca. 900 m a.s.l. (highest record 1,189 m), always in proximity to oceanic weather. The soils are variable, usually with a thick humus layer. On Vancouver Island and on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington this spruce attains its greatest size. It is usually mixed with Tsuga heterophylla (shade tolerant competitor), Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuja plicata, other associated conifers are Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (locally), Xanthocyparis nootkatensis, and Abies amabilis, at higher elevations replaced by Tsuga mertensiana or Abies lasiocarpa; Alnus rubra alongside rivers and Acer macrophyllum in groves are common broad-leaved trees. Logging may have in the past depleted stands of mature trees where these have not been replaced by the same species, but in general, good regeneration has ensured that there has been limited decline in extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. Sitka spruce grows to the largest tree of its genus and is abundant in the coastal forests between roughly 43º and 62º N along the Pacific Ocean. It is a highly valuable timber tree with growth rates exceeding those of other species and, in old growth stands, truly magnificent sizes. It is (still) heavily logged in clear cuts from natural stands including old growth (in this part of the world this means: forest that was never cut before). Smaller sizes go to the paper industry, but big trees are prized for construction and special uses such as small aircraft, masts and spars for sailing ships, oars for rowing boats, ladders, and sounding boards of musical instruments. Sitka spruce has been widely used in plantation forestry on poor acid soils in cool and wet climates such as the hills and moors of Ireland and Scotland; this timber is used for pulp wood. In horticulture it finds less use; most plantings in large parks as specimen trees date from the 19th century, and only a limited number of cultivars has been produced, mostly dwarf forms. It requires a cool and moist climate. This species is present in several protected areas, including national parks.