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Đầu tư tài chính là gì?

khi bạn trở nên một chủ đầu tư, bạn sẽ sử dụng chi phí của chính mình để có được những thứ có tiềm năng đem tới nhiều lệch giá. nếu khách hàng dùng một chút tiền tiết kiệm ngân sách để đầu tư thì rất có thể giúp lớn mạnh số chi phí ấy lớn hơn.
đầu tư vốn là một trong những khoảng tài sản mà tại ấy, bạn trút tiền vào với mong muốn rằng nó sẽ lớn mạnh hoặc nhận định rất có thể trở một khoản tiền to hơn. ý nghĩ đó của bạn là trong tương lai chúng ta có thể bán nó với giá cao hơn hay kiếm tiền từ nó trong lúc bạn chiếm dụng khối tài sản đó. chẳng hạn như bạn có thể tìm cách thức lớn mạnh một chiếc nào đó vào thời điểm năm sau, ví dụ như tiết kiệm một cái ô tô, hoặc trong 30 năm đến, chẳng hạn như tiết kiệm ngân sách cho nghỉ hưu.
Thuật ngữ “đầu tư” chỉ ngẫu nhiên cơ chế nào được sử dụng để tạo nên nguồn thu sau đây. Về mặt nguồn vốn, điều này bao gồm việc chọn mua trái phiếu, CP hay gia tài Bất Động Sản Nhà Đất giữa 1 số người không giống nhau. Ngoài ra, 1 tòa nhà được thiết kế hay cơ sở khác được sử dụng để chế tạo hàng hóa cũng đều có thể được xem như là một số vốn. Việc sản xuất hàng hóa cần thiết để tạo nên các sản phẩm khác cũng đều có thể được xem là góp vốn đầu tư.
===> Có thể bạn quan tâm: Đầu tư gì với 100 triệu hiệu quả
bối cảnh về ngành đầu tư hoàn toàn có thể rất năng động và không ngừng tăng trưởng. Nhưng những người chịu dành thời giờ để hướng đến những nguyên lý cơ bản và nhiều chủng loại gia tài khác nhau sẽ đạt được thành tựu đáng chú ý trong khoảng thời gian dài. những bước đầu tiên bạn nên học cách thức nhận ra nhiều chủng loại đầu tư khác nhau & những điều giúp mỗi cá nhân quản lý được các “nấc thang rủi ro”.
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A guide on Bitcoin vs Cryptocurrency
Bitcoin is a digital currency that is based on the cryptocurrency system. Unlike government-issued currencies, it is governed by a decentralized authority. Cryptocurrency, on the other hand, is a type of technology that serves as a means of facilitating the safe and secure conduct of various financial transactions. Cryptocurrency has come a long way in the last ten years, progressing at breakneck speed. Value can be stored, transferred, and spent in a variety of ways using a variety of assets and solutions, and DeFi has paved the way for new borrowing and lending opportunities. According to the growth and adoption seen since 2008, when Satoshi Nakamoto published the framework for a small asset called Bitcoin, the future of cryptocurrency and its associated technology appears bright. Although blockchain appears to be as complex as it can be, its fundamental concept is quite simple. A database, also known as a blockchain, is a digital ledger. To comprehend the concept of blockchain, one must first comprehend the concept of a database. A database is a collection of data saved on a computer system in an electronic format. What do you mean by Bitcoin Technology? Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency, in 2008. It began as open-source software for money transfers. Bitcoin was primarily created to facilitate cross-border transactions, reduce government control over trade, and streamline the entire process without the use of third-party intermediaries. Bitcoin is not a formally accepted payment medium in all countries, but people worldwide utilize it for various transactions. Because it is not physically present, it would be extremely safe and secure, and blockchain is one of the best ways to achieve this. Blockchain is a distributed ledger that allows peer-to-peer transactions to take place in a low-cost, safe, and secure environment. Furthermore, it makes the information available to the general public, allowing anyone to view and access the financial transactions that have taken place. What do you mean by Cryptocurrency Technology? Cryptocurrency is a type of technology that is used to carry out financial transactions. With the help of cryptography technology, cryptocurrency provides a safe and secure platform for transactions from the creation of units to the final verification of the transaction being made. Cryptocurrency is a type of digital currency that is not physically present. There is no physical form to it. It operates on a decentralized control system with no central banking systems. As a result, cryptocurrencies can now work with distributed ledgers more easily. Cryptocurrency technologies have become a force to be recognized worldwide, thanks to distributed ledgers that provide peer-to-peer transactions and the transparency of providing transaction details to the public. Originally, it was only used for online transactions, but it is now used to trade almost anything. It has become such a huge success that many companies all over the world use it. Some major corporations spend significant sums of money to streamline the process by implementing advanced safety and security measures, allowing the cryptocurrency to grow at an incredible rate. Are blockchain and cryptocurrencies the same? Decentralized platforms that require a coin can be enabled using blockchains. Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that allows a network to maintain consensus. Thanks to distributed consensus, the network can track transactions and transfer value and information. From a business standpoint, blockchain technology can be thought of as a type of next-generation business process optimization software. Collaborative technology, such as blockchain, has the potential to improve business procedures between companies while drastically lowering the "cost of trust." As a result, it has the potential to generate much higher returns per dollar invested than most traditional internal investments. Cryptocurrencies are digital tokens that are used to convey value, pay for transactions, and provide network incentives within blockchain networks. You could also consider them a blockchain tool that can be used as a resource, a service, or even to digitize asset ownership. Bitcoin vs Cryptocurrency Head-to-Head-Differences Aim: Bitcoin: To make transactions easier and faster without having to deal with a slew of government regulations. Cryptocurrency: To provide transactions that are low-cost, safe, and secure. Trade: Bitcoin: It can only be used for trading when it is used as a currency. Cryptocurrency: There are a variety of cryptocurrencies available for trading. Popularity: Bitcoin: It is the most popular cryptocurrency to trade. Cryptocurrency: The number of cryptocurrencies has increased, but their share is still less than bitcoin. Strategy: Bitcoin: It focuses on lowering influencer costs and shortening transaction times, but it is less flexible. Cryptocurrency: It aims to allow people to exchange goods and services safely and securely, with little or no government or middleman intervention. Status: Bitcoin: It prefers anonymity. As a result, while their transactions can be seen in the ledger, they are meaningless numbers that are not in any particular order. Cryptocurrencies: Those that have recently appeared to adhere to transparency in their dealings. As a result, they can collaborate with a wide range of industries. Conclusion As the first cryptocurrency, Bitcoin has an advantage over other cryptocurrency technologies. Many cryptocurrencies have emerged since then, some of which specialize in a few industries. The most crucial factor is competition. Cryptocurrencies are constantly improving themselves and the technologies that they use as a result of intense competition. It paves the way for new ideas, improved performance, and enhanced security. Bitcoin may have had a larger market share in the beginning. The gap is closing every day, thanks to the introduction of new cryptocurrencies and sophisticated and transparent technologies. This market will become more dispersed shortly, with the cryptocurrency that provides the most value at the top. It's helpful to think of blockchain technology as a type of next-generation business process improvement software from a business standpoint. Collaborative technology, such as blockchain, has the potential to improve business processes between companies while dramatically lowering the "cost of trust." As a result, it may provide significantly better returns per dollar invested than most traditional internal investments.
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A cross-chain bridge The term cross-chain bridge includes two layers of relationships, that is, the cross-chain is the purpose, and the medium is the bridge. To understand it, use the bridge in life to explain it most vividly. However, the bridge is a necessary means for people to cross the ditch and river. By analogy with the blockchain, it is to extradite the assets of chain A to chain B, which will overcome the consensus barrier to realize the mutual promotion of the ecology of each chain. Domain circulation, in order to play the value of Guangyuan, it must be delivered through the help of cross-chain bridge products. The initial cross-chain Bridge Smart Contract Development Services in the market is a centralized exchange. For example, if the assets of the public chain are issued, and the realization of circulation requires the exchange to act as a transfer station for encrypted assets, that is, a bridge, the bridge plays the role of keeping funds and transfers this part of the funds. Released on another service agreement, users can withdraw funds in the bridge to the original public chain through a withdrawal request. All in all, as long as native blockchain assets such as Bitcoin and Ethereum are applied to any other system, A bridge is required. Due to the popularity of DeFi, the current popular Cross chain bridge development for custodial services of cryptocurrencies, such as WBTC, RenBTC, sBTC, etc., such BTC anchor coins are issued on non-Bitcoin networks and the price is anchored to the native Bitcoin. A special type of token, users must rely on and trust a certain group of entities to mine and burn this type of BCT. Based on this type of token, it is better to inject sufficient liquidity into DeFi and obtain high returns. Although there are many types of cross-chain bridges, most of them can only provide cross-chain assets, that is, only Dapp assets with high activity and high popularity are transferred and circulated, including single-organization cross-chain and multi-organization cross-chain, but the essence is not the same. No distinction. The next higher-level upgrade and evolution will be the emergence of an information cross-chain bridge. Now, what the cross-chain project Polkadot needs to achieve is to satisfy both asset cross-chain and information cross-chain, and this will take some time. ChainX, Bifrost, Darwinnia, etc. developed based on Polkadot Substrate will release the value charm far beyond the current cross-chain bridge in the near future. What is the meaning of the cross-chain bridge? In addition to playing an the role in asset extradition, cross-chain bridg that can be solve the problem of insufficient performance of the underlying public cross chain. Like the current Polygon sidechain network, it can help transfer transaction throughput from one layer to the off-chain system, and the whole process is easy. The funds are kept through the bridge, releasing a layer of huge transaction pressure. However, Build a cross chain bridge such bridges also have certain drawbacks. They only focus on their own security model, which is almost independent of the blockchain network of the main chain, so they have a certain degree of security risk. The ideal cross-chain bridge can not only satisfy the exchange of asset information, but also have a high security guarantee, and can ensure that the cross-chain environment is highly transparent and tamper-free, and is compatible with the protocols, applications and transactions of various public chains with higher performance. and other categories of “consensus”, only in accordance with this goal, the “middleware” role of the cross-chain bridge can be recognized by a wider market and used more frequently, and the development of the industry can safely enter the indiscriminate cross-border. The era of chain interaction and circulation.
What are the benefits of smart contracts?
smart contracts A “smart contract” is a concept on a blockchain system, and is a program that is executed by a transaction (transaction) on the blockchain or information taken from outside the blockchain as a trigger according to preset rules. Point to. Here, “smart” is used to mean “automatically executed” rather than “smart”. The idea of a program that runs automatically according to certain rules is nothing new. Computer scientist Nick Szabo has already introduced the idea of smart contracts to the world in the 1990s. So what are the benefits of smart contracts in blockchain? First, “reliability” can be mentioned. Traditionally, contracts and transactions are executed through a trust-providing intermediary, but smart contracts do not need to go through a third party. This is because the rules are set in advance, so the program will be executed automatically whenever certain conditions met.In addition,Bridge Smart Contract Development Services blockchain is resistant to data tampering in the first place, ensuring a high level of security. Next is “transparency”. The contents of the programmed smart contract and the records of the transactions executed by it will be published on the blockchain. Therefore, there is a high possibility that fraud will be detected. “Cost reduction” is also expected. There is no need to pay a fee to an intermediary or a third party that guarantees reliability. At the same time, the time required for a series of procedures will be shortened, and information will not be omitted by the intermediary. Many of these merits are rooted in the technical characteristics of blockchain, and smart contracts are the way to increase the availability of blockchain technology. “DAO” is an example of the use of smart contracts. This is an abbreviation for “Decentralized Autonomous Organization” and refers to an autonomous decentralized organization. Many are built on the public blockchain (anyone can participate without a specific administrator), and the organization is operated by smart contracts, not by human will. Writing this way gives the impression of a “libertarian” that emphasizes economic and personal freedom, Cross chain bridge development but it is not unrelated to the origin of blockchain technology such as Bitcoin. This is because Bitcoin was created based on the idea of “I want to create an unnecessary decentralized currency for the central bank” and “I want to send my assets at any time without being disturbed by anyone.” Of course, smart contracts can also be used on private blockchains that maintain a certain degree of centralization (a specific administrator exists and only authorized persons can participate). In real-world contracts and transactions, it is not uncommon for contracts to be invalidated or for transactions to be unwound due to the effects of mistakes and laws and regulations. In a private blockchain, it can be invalidated or rewound by the agreement of the administrator, and in reality, this is considered to be the main battlefield, at least in the short to medium term. However, you should not expect too much from smart contracts. In the “Hype Cycle for Legal and Compliance Technologies, 2020” announced in July 2020, Gartner, Build a cross chain bridge a research company in the United States, conducted hype cycle analysis in the field of legal compliance (the dawn of the maturity / application of new technologies, etc. → A method of plotting during the peak period of excessive expectations → disillusionment period → enlightenment activity period → stable productivity period). As a result of this analysis, smart contracts are said to be just before slipping off the peak of “excessive expectations.” With so many expectations and so touted smart contracts, we will need to reaffirm whether what they are expected to bring will really come true. It should also be noted that unexpected risks may be obscured.
What is a BNB smart chain?
BNB smart chain In the crypto asset industry in 2021, we often heard the terms DeFi (decentralized finance) and NFT (non-fungible token), but we also paid a lot of attention to smart contract chains such as Ethereum, which is the basis of these applications. Gathered. Ethereum, Solana blockchain, Avalanche blockchain, etc. are listed , but BSC (Binance Smart Chain) attracted a lot of attention in the first half of 2021. As the name implies, it is a blockchain unique to Binance, a major cryptocurrency exchange. This time , I explained about BSC (Binance Smart Chain)Bridge Smart Contract Development Services from its features to recommended projects and how to buy it . If you want to use the project on BSC, please refer to it.BNB Chain (BSC) is a blockchain built to run smart contract-based high-performance applications. BNB chain (BSC) is an independent blockchain, the gas cost is cheaper than other chains, and it is compatible with Ethereum. Famous DeFi projects such as Decentralized Exchange (DEX) Pancake Swap and Venus that can lend and borrow virtual currencies are being developed on BSC. The BNB Chain (BSC) ecosystem may expand as applications on BSC increase and GameFi trading volumes increase. Please note that the use of the BNB chain (BSC) is at your own risk as it is not approved by the Financial Services Agency. When using the BNB chain (BSC) , Coincheck is recommended as a domestic exchange for sending money to overseas exchanges. When sending money to your wallet to use Binance Smart Chain, we recommend Coincheck, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in Japan. What is BSC (Binance Smart Chain)? BNB Chain (BSC) is a blockchain built to run smart contract-based high-performance applications. BSC allows developers to build decentralized applications (DApps) and users to cross-chain cryptocurrencies with low latency and high capacity. Concerns about rising Ethereum gas bills have led developers and users of applications to look for other options, which drew a lot of attention in early 2021. Unlike Binance Chain, the blockchain originally developed by Binance, BSC boasts smart contract functionality and compatibility with Ethereum Virtual Machines (EVMs). Built to be cross-chain compatible with Binance Chain, users can enjoy the advantages of both, cross chain bridge development but BSC is an independent blockchain and can run even if Binance Chain goes offline. Features of BSC Now that you have an overview of the BNB chain (BSC), I will explain the features of the BSC. Features of BSC Independent blockchain with low gas bill Compatibility with Ethereum Maintaining blockchain with PoSA Independent blockchain with low gas bill BNB chain (BSC) is an independent blockchain, and the gas cost is overwhelmingly cheaper than other chains . Most noticed when Ethereum fees soared. In BSC, 1 Gwei is set to 10–9 or 0.000000001 BNB, and as of January 3, 2022, the average gas price is about 6.6 Gwei . On the other hand, Ethereum has 1Gwei = 0.000000001ETH, and the average gas price is about 107Gwei as of January 3, 2022. The calculation method of gas cost is defined as “gas cost = gas price x gas limit”, but even if you compare only the gas price, you can see that BSC is cheaper. Also, the gas limit may be set high, but the gas limit fluctuates depending on the number of transactions, and in most cases the gas fee is calculated at a value lower than the gas limit, so the fee is much higher than Ethereum. Is cheaper. Compatibility with Ethereum The BNB Chain (BSC) is EVM compatible and was launched with support for Ethereum’s rich tools and DApps. Theoretically, it would be easier for developers to move projects from Ethereum to BSC . For users, applications like MetaMask can easily be configured to work with BSC and applications on BSC can be used. Since ultra-high interest rate virtual currency management such as staking and farming, which is a feature of decentralized exchange (DEX) and Decentralized Finance, Build a cross chain bridge can be used at a lower fee than Ethereum, it is an investment that is worrisome for users with small funds and fees. It has become popular with homes. Maintaining blockchain with PoSA The BNB Chain (BSC) is a Proof of Staked Authority (PoSA) that combines both the Proof of Authority (PoA) and the Delegate Proof of Stake (DPoS) to achieve network consensus and blockchain security. Achieves maintenance .In PoSA, there is an elected validator that checks the transactions on the network in order, and the block is generated by the PoA method considering the stake amount and the reputation in the community. This consensus model allows BSCs to achieve block times of approximately 3 seconds and low fees . It is also run by 21 community validators. The validator will be rewarded with the transaction fees incurred on the proposed block once it is added to the chain. BSC project Now that you understand the characteristics of BSC (Binance Smart Chain), here are five popular projects at BSC. Popular project at BSC PancakeSwap Venus Pancake bunny MOBOX BakerySwap PancakeSwap is the most popular automated market maker (AMM) model decentralized exchange (DEX) on the BNB chain (BSC). It is very similar in design to Uniswap and SushiSwap on Ethereum, has a large amount of liquidity, a wide range of features, and a large user base. Designed to securely trade Binance Coins (BNB) and a huge variety of BEP-20 tokens without losing your private key, all transactions on Pancake Swap are automatically executed via smart contracts. , Eliminates counterparty risk altogether . PancakeSwap is also open source, has a public website and smart contract code, and is made up of various engineers . Although the team behind PancakeSwap is completely anonymous, the platform has been audited by several prominent blockchain security companies, including Certik and Slowmist, making it a relatively secure DEX.
Best Approaches to Develop Your Own Crypto Exchange Software in 2022
Cryptocurrencies have grown in popularity over the last few decades and are on their way to becoming the prominent mode of financial transactions. Cryptocurrency investing is similar to stock market investing. As a result, you can assume exceptional returns on your investment. Investors and entrepreneurs have been inspired by the rise of bitcoin to invest in or start a crypto exchange platform. The availability of cryptocurrency exchange software development services is assisting entrepreneurs in a big manner these days by giving them a lot of possibilities. The need of the moment is for solutions that can distinguish between safe and vulnerable trading. Because crypto exchanges are the most popular way to convert cash for cryptocurrency and vice versa, this is critical. What is Crypto Exchange Software and How Does It Function? Bitcoin, ether, litecoin, Polkadot, dogecoin, and other cryptocurrencies can all be traded using crypto exchange software. You can buy crypto using fiat currency such as the US dollar or trade one kind of crypto for another, depending on the exchange. Cryptocurrency exchanges are open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, unlike traditional exchanges that have scheduled trading hours. What are the various techniques for developing a crypto exchange? There are three ways to get functioning Crypto exchange software: 1. Non-Propreitory Software (Open Source Software): The term “open-source” refers to publicly available code. Anyone can change, download or share the code because it is publicly accessible. However, using open-source code would sabotage and eliminate the project, resulting in a slew of faults. The main disadvantage of this technique is that there is no guarantee of security, which makes it accessible to hacking by unknown users. 2. Creating a Solution from the Ground Up: Large companies typically choose this technique since they either have a large development staff or have large finances to outsource the project to contractors. This strategy is without flaws. Enterprises receive a smart and personalized solution for launching a crypto exchange. However, it may be a time-consuming procedure that is dependent on development teams. Although the development cost and work required in this process are significant, the end result is incomparable, making your exchange stand out in the global crypto business. 3. White label exchange solution A ready-to-deploy crypto white label exchange contains all of an exchange’s essential trading capabilities and security elements. Using the white-label software/clone script you may design and implement a feature-rich crypto trading platform in a couple of days for a low cost. It allows you to customize the visuals, functionality, and more. Key Features of a Crypto Exchange Software • Push notifications Push notifications are the most effective way to keep consumers informed about volatility, trends, news, price changes, and platform updates. Notifications can also be used to keep track of exchange listings. Always remember that consumers have control over the alerts they receive. Push notifications are simple, quick, and affordable to set up. Push notifications are more expensive than other automated marketing methods, such as chatbots. • Analytical tools These are required to create a complex cryptocurrency app or website. They provide users with real-time market data as well as additional market information. Traders can use indicators like Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD), Relative Strength Index (RSI), Bollinger Bands (BB), and others to help them develop trading strategies. • Wallet Your users can store and transfer their crypto assets using a wallet. It’s a smart idea to provide two types of wallets (cold and hot). Hot wallets allow users to deposit and withdraw money from their accounts. Because they are not connected to the internet, they operate as a backup and are thus safe against fraud. • Order book and transaction history Users can move through the current bids using an order book embedded into crypto exchange software. Transaction history allows users to keep track of their transactions. It’s a list of completed deals that includes transaction details such as the trade rate and the transaction time. • Trade Engine – Have you considered putting a trading engine at the heart of your platform that finds and connects traders? In addition, the trade engine’s efficiency has a substantial impact on the crypto exchange’s system performance. It is faster to deliver better service to clients. Users must have real-time access to their trading data to efficiently manage their investments. • User Interface (UI/UX) – Make sure your user interface is basic, straightforward, and user-friendly because it is the face of your exchange platform. Transactions are performed swiftly because to an easy-to-use interface, which reduces trading time. The dashboard should provide access to order management, order history, fund withdrawals and deposits, statistics, and other features. Launch your own Crypto Exchange Software Reasons to Invest in a white label crypto exchange • Quick development You may quickly build a crypto exchange trading platform using a crypto white label exchange since it is ready to deploy and can be quickly launched after easy customization of the front-end. • Reduces the cost of labour: A white label solution has a cheaper development cost because it is a market-ready solution that can be used by other businesses trying to create their own crypto exchange. • Achieve more without technical knowledge: If you don’t have a lot of technical knowledge, this will come in handy. Setting up your own white label bitcoin trading platform will be simple even if you have no technological experience. • Branding with customization Your branding will be enhanced as your clone script is integrated into a smart solution. Because the product includes your name, design, and logo, your brand will be visible to your target demographic. Conclusion: Many medium and small companies are concerned about getting their hands on a crypto exchange. However, not everyone can afford to hire an in-house team to create crypto exchange software. The solution requires resources, manpower, and time to build. If you need to deploy quickly and have few resources, a white label crypto exchange is the perfect option. Hashstudioz can help you in setting up a crypto exchange. We provide a white-label exchange solution with market-leading features to help you get your exchange up to and running quickly. We also provide clone scripts for popular centralized and decentralized exchanges, such as Binance, Pancake Swap, UniSwap, and others. Our experienced blockchain developers are also experts in building specialized exchange platforms from the bottom up. Schedule a free demo of our white label exchange solution or get in touch with one of our subject matter experts to discuss your crypto-exchange software development requirements.
How smart contracts work?
smart contracts The smart contract consists of four flows, and when introducing it, the smart contract is implemented on the blockchain using Ethereum, which is a Bridge Smart Contract Development Services development platform that introduced the smart contract. The flow when executing a smart contract on the blockchain is as follows. Contract definition Waiting for an event Contract execution / exchange of value Payment / settlement First, program the terms and conditions. There are various contracts that can be considered in this contract definition, for example, escrow transactions (payment is automatically executed when goods are received by a certain date) and smart properties (car sharing, share house, etc., once payment is completed). The key is valid only for a fixed period of time). Next, depending on the information of digital assets on the blockchain and the information of receiving goods outside the blockchain, the event will be executed only when the predefined conditions are met. Events are processed by contract terms and exchange of Ethereum and rights (such as car ownership and real estate). In the case of digital assets traded on the blockchain, settlement is completed at this point, but in the case of contracts to exchange physical assets such as cars and real estate, we will confirm the actual thing and complete the transaction. Three benefits of smart contracts The realization of smart contracts enables the execution of all contracts without the need for an administrator to mediate the contract. This will realize the world of “Decentralized Autonomous Organization” (DAO) where all transactions are carried out autonomously and decentralized. There are three benefits to realizing smart contracts and DAOs. The trust cost of the contract partner is reduced Reduces contract fraud Contract fees are reduced In a traditional transaction, the seller cannot complete the transaction without confirming that the buyer has paid. However, with smart contracts, contracts are concluded only when each other meets predetermined conditions, Cross chain bridge development so there is no concern about unpaid payments. Therefore, for example, simply executing a smart contract that “automatically transfers the right of the owned real estate when payment is completed” guarantees a highly reliable transaction. Since this contract is programmed and executed automatically, it is not possible to artificially tamper with the contract contents, and Ethereum can save the smart contract on the blockchain and check the contract contents and execution status even afterwards. It also has the advantage of being less prone to fraud. In addition, since no intermediary is required for such a series of transactions, the fees related to the contract can be reduced. Three challenges for smart contracts While smart contracts have these benefits, they also have problems. Here, let’s take a closer look at the three issues of smart contracts, taking into account the incident that occurred in Ethereum. Legal issues Privacy issues Difficult to verify vulnerabilities Legal issues Since services using smart contracts are new services that do not exist in the existing framework, legal development is currently underway in various businesses. Since smart contracts are services that use virtual currencies, the existence of the revised Funds Settlement Law cannot be ignored. The revised Funds Settlement Law recognizes that virtual currencies have property value and requires compliance with the Act on Prevention of Transfer of Criminal Proceeds when handling virtual currencies. As a result, cryptocurrency exchanges are obliged to notify the Financial Services Agency when there is a suspicion of money laundering based on user attributes, transaction status, and other information necessary for transactions. Regulations and legislation may only give a negative impression, but these frameworks are being promoted to prevent fraud and transfer of profits to criminal organizations, protecting investors as well as users. Is for. While smart contracts are an epoch-making mechanism, they are contracts that are legal acts, so what kind of legal problems the smart contract service that you are paying attention to has? You will always need to have. Privacy issues Since smart contracts are programs developed on the blockchain, the high degree of openness and transparency that fraud is not performed, which was also an advantage of smart contracts, is synonymous with the fact that traders and transaction details are open to the public. is. Of course, it is difficult to strictly associate a specific individual with a trader, Build a cross chain bridge but it should be kept in mind that it is not completely impossible to identify a trader from past transaction information. In addition, since smart contracts will be accompanied by contracts, smart contract service providers must establish a correct privacy policy in advance regarding the handling of personal information. According to Article 15 of the Personal Information Protection Law of Japan, “1. When handling personal information, a business operator handling personal information must specify the purpose of use (hereinafter referred to as” purpose of use “) as much as possible. (2) When changing the purpose of use, a business operator handling personal information must not go beyond the range reasonably recognized as having a considerable relevance to the purpose of use before the change. It is stipulated. Although it is the part that overlaps with the first issue, it is also a point to determine the service whether it clears these laws. Difficult to verify vulnerabilities Smart contracts automate transactions through programs stored on the blockchain. This program, of course, is developed by the implementer, but there is a problem that it is difficult to verify the validity of this code. Users of smart contract services trust the provided smart contracts, and once stored on the blockchain, smart contracts have been stolen in large numbers by exploiting vulnerabilities in uncorrectable DApps. It cannot be said that an event like The DAO will not happen.