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New Updates on how UAE combats cybercrime: Punishments and Penalties

The UAE has been at the forefront of taking decisive and proactive measures to curb the prevalence of cyber-attacks in the region. The strategy and success in combatting cybercrimes in the region lies in the adoption of more comprehensive and streamlined laws and regulations with stricter penalties. In this article, we would like to take you through the main concepts of cybercrime with a special focus on how the UAE tackles these issues.

What is ‘cybercrime’:
Cybercrime involves the use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends, such as committing fraud, trafficking in child pornography and intellectual property, identity theft, or privacy violations etc. It involves distributing viruses, illegally downloading of files, phishing and stealing personal information like bank account details etc. A crime can be thus be distinguished as a ‘cybercrime’, if the key ingredients of the crime include ‘computer’ and ‘internet’. For this reason, cybercrimes are often termed ‘computer crimes’.

Cyber-crimes can be further classified into five categories:
1. Economic crime – Economic cyberattacks are often highly organized crimes that use the most advanced technology and tools to commit such crime, often via hacking.

2. Terrorism: A cyber-attack is a term as an act of terrorism if it is targeted against a nation’s interests, particularly targeting its infrastructure, economy, resources etc.

3. Activism: ‘Wikileaks’ would be the right example to showcase an activist cybercrime, wherein the hacking is done in furtherance to an idealistic agenda.

4. Espionage: This can include both corporate and political espionage. Wherein the offender tries to obtain confidential information, protected trade secrets and other intellectual property rights to gain commercial or political advantage.

5. Warfare: Cyberwarfare involves action by a private or international organization attempting to damage or attack another nation actively by targeting its information network or computer system.

How the UAE tackles instances of cybercrimes:
- The telecom regulatory authority (TRA) actively monitors the information and content available online and takes prohibitory measures for content that is malicious in nature.

- TRA also initiates curbing measures against unlicensed VoIP service providers, including illegal websites.

- The licensing telecom service providers in the UAE such as ‘Du’ and ‘Etisalat’, also take prohibitory measures to block online content based on complaints received for abusive or defamatory aspects.

- UAE authorities often take stringent legal action against unauthorized websites after verifying the validity and seriousness of each cyber complaint. Stringent penalties are imposed depending on the veracity of the act; 

- For example: An act of IP address forgery can be punished with imprisonment of up to three years and a fine of up to AED 500,000. 

- Privacy violations, whether it is illegal hacking and obtaining private picture or other reformation, are very strictly punished. 

- Acts of forgery can be punished with fines ranging from Aed 100,000 to up to 300,00, and if such an act is committed against the government, then the penalties can be up to Aed 1 million in fines and imprisonment sentence.

- Acts of cyber hacking against banks in order to obtain illegal data concerning banking accounts and card information can be punished with huge fines of up to Aed 1 million and also with imprisonment.

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Your guide to terminate limited and unlimited contract
Pursuant to the Federal Law No. 8 of 1980 on the regulations of labour relations and its amendments (“UAE labour law”) the employment contracts can be of two kinds ‘limited term contract’ and ‘unlimited term contracts’. As the name indicates, limited term contracts are set for specific term period, while unlimited term contracts are open ended and do not specify and end term. Pursuant to Article 113 of the UAE Labour Law, an employment contract can be terminated for the following three instances:  - By mutual agreement of the Parties, provided that the worker's consent is given in writing;  - Upon expiry of its term, unless it has been expressly or implicitly extended according to the provisions of this Law;  - For the convenience of either party to an indefinite term contract, provided that the provisions of this Law concerning the notice and the valid grounds of termination without arbitrariness are adhered to.  Termination of a limited term Contract: A limited term contract may be terminated at the option of either the employer or the employee mutually pursuant to the terms of the Article 113 as cited above; or Termination by Employer: In addition, to the above ground, an employer may terminate an employee who is on a limited term contract immediately without providing any notice period, if any of the grounds of termination as specified under clause 120 of the UAE labor law occur. Article 120 of the UAE law labor law cites the following ten grounds: - If the employee assumed false identity or nationality or submits forged certificates or documents.  - If the employee was dismissed during the probation period. - If the employee has committed any fault which has resulted in the substantial material loss to the employer, provided that the employer notifies the labor department of the incident within 48 hours of his becoming aware of its occurrence. - If the employee disobeys instructions on the safety of work or workplace,  - If the employee defaults on his basic duties under the contract and fails to redress such default despite a written interrogation and a warning that he will be dismissed if such default is repeated; - If the employee is finally convicted by a competent court of a crime against honor, honesty or public morals; -  If the employee reveals any confidential information of his employer;  If the employee is found in a state of drunkenness or under the influence of a narcotic drug during working hours; - If the employee assaults the employer, the manager in charge or any of his workmates during working hours;  - If the employee absents himself from work without a valid reason for more than 20 non-successive days in one single year, or for more than seven successive days Termination of a limited contract by the employee: In addition to the ground provided under Article 113 of UAE labor law, as discussed above, an employee on the other hand can lawfully terminate a limited term employment contract if: - If the employer fails to honor his obligations towards the employee, as provided for in the contract or in this Law. This clause includes instances wherein the employee is not paid his salary and other benefits as per his employment contract. - If the employee is assaulted by the employer or the employer's legal representative. Termination of an un-limited term Contract: Pursuant to Article 117 of the UAE labour law, an unlimited term contract may be terminated by either the employer or the employee for a valid reason at any time provided the requirements towards the notice period is met by the terminating party. A ‘valid reason’ for terminating an unlimited contract should be any reason that is ‘work related’. Work related reasons can include amongst others, poor work performance, disciplinary breach or misconduct on part of the employee or other grounds.
How Model Tenancy Act Can Impact the Rental Real Estate Scenario
The MTA is a proposed model for all states/UTs to use in revising existing local rent control laws to meet the current needs of the real estate market. Here's a brief on the model tenancy act. The Act was published in 2019 and approved by the Union Cabinet on June 2, 2021. The Pradhan Mantri Aawas Yojana (PMAY-U) and the 2011 Census report supposed the move. The housing scheme (PMAY-U) aims to provide affordable housing to various groups of people, and one way to achieve this goal is to unlock vacant houses across the country. According to the 2011 census report, there were approximately 24.67 million empty houses in India, with about 11.09 million in urban areas. Over 1.1 crore houses in urban areas were vacant, and making these houses available for rent would complement the government's vision of "Housing for All" by 2022. Introduction to the law The MTA is a proposed model for all states and territories to amend their existing local rent control laws to meet the current real estate market needs. Model Tenancy Act 2021 which states that the States and union territories will legislate or amend existing rental laws according to the memorandum of understanding signed between the states and union territories under PMAY-U. However, the MTA is prospective and only applies to new tenancy agreements, not existing ones. How to enter a tenancy agreement? The most significant change brought about by MTA is the requirement that tenants and landlords sign a Tenancy Agreement. Both parties must jointly notify the Rent Authority by submitting the form found in Schedule 1 of the MTA and the required documents to the Rent Authority's website/digital platform. The said submission must be made within two months of the agreement's execution date. If the parties fail to notify each other jointly, they must do so separately within one month of the two months expiring. The rent authority shall provide a unique identification number to the parties and upload the details of the tenancy agreement on their website in the vernacular language or the language of the State/UT within seven working days after receiving information on the execution of the said agreement along with the documents. Rent: The tenant is responsible for paying the rent according to the terms of the agreement. The Landlord is unable to change the rent without the tenant's consent. The Security Deposit must be paid in advance and cannot be more than two months' rent for residential properties and six months' rent for non-residential properties. After making the required repairs, the Security Deposit will get refunded to the tenant on the date of taking over vacant possession of the premises. Rights and duties of tenants Rights To obtain a receipt/bank acknowledgment for rent payment. To pay the rent to the Landlord via postal money order or to the Rent Authority if the Landlord refuses to accept rent. After giving the Landlord 15 days' notice to vacate the uninhabitable premises Duties Maintenance of the premises, such as drain cleaning, changing tap washers and taps, washbasin repairs, switch and socket repairs, and so on (Schedule 2) Take reasonable care of the property and notify the Landlord if anything goes wrong. Rights and duties of landlords Rights 1. To collect rent and other fees as agreed upon in the tenancy agreement. 2. After 24 hours' notice, enter the premises for inspection, maintenance, or reasonable cause, but not before sunrise or after sunset. 3. If the tenant fails to maintain the premises, charges will get deducted from the security deposit. Duties Structural repairs, wall whitewashing, plumbing pipe replacement, electrical wiring maintenance Provide essential services to tenants Need for the Act Vacant houses are increasing In recent years, the number of vacant houses in urban India has increased exponentially. The lack of appropriate legislation for the rental housing market stakeholders could motivate the government to pass the aforementioned bill. The percentage of vacant houses in India's major cities remains very high. While Gurugram has 25.8% of the total vacant homes in India, Pune is second with 21.7%, and Mumbai is third with 15.3% of the total vacant stock in India. Once the bill receives approval from all states and UTs, the vacant stock can be brought under the purview of organized rental housing, as stakeholders – tenants and landlords – may find it easier to bridge the trust gap and unlock the actual utility of this housing stock. Role of property managers The MTA is not silent on the role of rental housing intermediaries/brokers/property managers/rental agents, and it defines them, their roles, and the consequences of violation. Any person or legal entity authorized by the Landlord to manage the premises or acts on behalf of the Landlord, tenant, or both in a renting premises transaction and receives remuneration, fees, or other charges for his services will be included here. Furthermore, the MTA establishes accountability for property managers, requiring them to provide name, address, PAN number, Aadhar number, and contact information for submission to rent authorities. Property managers welcome the MTA because it will provide them with more opportunities in the residential sector in the future. The new dispute resolution framework Tenancy disagreements between landlords and tenants are common in India. Even though rent control laws exist in every state, conflicts are unavoidable. The lack of regulation has been one of the most significant deterrents to landlords renting out their properties. With the introduction of the MTA, a three-tier dispute resolution structure comprised of Rent Authority, Rent Courts, and Rent Tribunals was created, which would help reduce the burden on the Civil Courts by diverting the load on these authorities. Rent Courts/Tribunals with personnel not below the rank of Additional Collector/Additional District Judge shall make every effort to resolve cases expeditiously and within 60 days of receipt of the application or appeal. Challenges faced by the Act Force majeure The definition has included any situation of war, flood, drought, fire, cyclone, earthquake, or other natural calamity affecting the tenant's habitation in the premises rented out. Although the model tenancy act 2021 which states the residential and commercial tenancy, it is unclear how the definition has finally linked to the residential tenancy after expressing the types of events. The states must make some changes and clarify who is responsible and bears the risk during force majeure events. Digitalization The MTA allows uploading information and documents submitted by applicants/parties to the Rent Authority's portal. So, according to the statute, every district would have a Rent Authority and thus would be required to set up a digital platform. Instead of having a different portal for each Rent Authority, there is undoubtedly a need for a unified portal across the country. The Central Government should organize to save time and money. The availability of information is a well-established tenet of informed decision-making in the digital age. Any delay in establishing digital platforms or Rent Authorities could have serious consequences. Exclusion of certain property The MTA excludes property such as premises owned or promoted by the Central Government/State Government/Union Territory Administration/local authority/ Government undertaking/ enterprise/statutory body/ Cantonment Board/ company/ University/organization/ religious institutions notified by state government/ charitable trusts/ Auqaf under Waqf Act, 1995, or any building specifically exempted for the public interest. Such exclusion will keep a large portion of vacant stock out of the regulatory framework, requiring stakeholders to rely on other legal resources for dispute resolution. Under what circumstances can the Landlord break the agreement and evict the tenant? The Landlord cannot evict the tenant while the tenancy agreement is still in effect. However, the Landlord can apply to the Rent Authority for eviction on the following grounds: 1. If the tenant refuses to pay the rent according to the tenancy agreement terms 2. If the tenant has not paid the rent and other fees for two months in a row 3. If the tenant takes possession of any part of the premises without the Landlord's written permission 4. Even after receiving notice from the Landlord, the tenant misuses the property (including immoral, illegal, and public nuisance activities). 5. If the Landlord needs to do some construction work on the property, that cannot be done without vacating the property. 6. If the tenant has given a written notice to vacate the premises, the Landlord stands to lose money if possession is not granted. 7. If the tenant has made any structural changes without the Landlord's written permission Can a tenant or a landlord file a complaint against the other? Yes, both parties can file an application or appeal with affidavits and documents before the Rent Court or Rent Tribunal, as the case may be. The Rent Court/Tribunal acts under the Code of Civil Procedure for various purposes, including summons issuance, affidavit evidence, witness examination, and so on. The Court/Tribunal, on the other hand, is guided by natural justice principles and is free to regulate its own procedure. Does the agreement become null and void if the Landlord dies? Yes, in the event of the Landlord's death, the legal heirs of the deceased Landlord can file an eviction application with the Rent Court. Suppose the court determines that the applicant/legal heirs have a bonafide need for the premises. In that case, an order will be issued against the tenant for handing over vacant possession of the premises to the legal heirs of the deceased Landlord. What if the Landlord makes structural changes and raises the rent during the tenancy? Frequently, the Landlord begins construction work during the tenancy period and incurs costs for alterations, improvements, and structural changes that are not necessary repairs to be carried out in the premises occupied by the tenant, putting pressure on the tenant to request a rent increase. In such cases, rent can only get increased if the Landlord and tenant sign a written agreement before the work begins, according to Section 9(2) of the MTA. In addition, the said rent would be applied one month after completing work. To Conclude: The central government's intention appears to be toward progress and the formalization of the real estate market. The Model Tenancy Act’s goal is to make the country's rental housing market vibrant, sustainable, and inclusive. It will help alleviate stakeholders' concerns and enable landlords to unlock vacant properties and create adequate housing stock for all income groups, thereby addressing the issue of homelessness. However, the Act is still in its early stages and must deal with time-consuming procedures before implementation. The identification and appointment of personnel for Rent Authorities, Rent Courts, and Rent Tribunals would be a time-consuming process requiring adequate time for the MTA's on-the-ground implementation.
How to be Protected from Bank Fraud and Procedures to File a Complaint?
The UAE continuously tightens its rules and regulations concerning anti-money laundering (AML) and Counter-Terrorism Financing (CTF). It is constantly committed to its goal and vision to establish itself as the global centre for international businesses and commits to the highest standards possible in all streams. UAE aims to continuously improve the government operations in a comprehensive institutional manner and implement it to effectively counter the risks associated with money laundering & terrorism financing and that of illegal organizations developing in the region.  In this article, we will discuss some of the recent changes in AML and CTF measures in the UAE. New Guidelines from UAE Central Bank: The UAE Central Bank has issued new guidelines in anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism efforts. The new guidelines focus on entities functioning in the real estate, precious metal and stones sectors. The new measures are in force from June onwards and have been affected in understanding and mitigating the risks. Under the new guidelines, the licensed financial institutions are required to conduct appropriate levels of due diligence. They are obliged to report directly to the UAE’s Financial Intelligence Unit and report any suspicious activities by filing a ‘suspicious activity report’. Institutions functioning in the real estate, precious metal and stones sector are also guided to appoint a compliance officer and develop effective programs that help to assess and control money laundering and terrorist financing risks. A recent statement issued by the Central Bank governor states its vision and role in AML and CTF “A critical part of UAE Central Bank is to ensure that all licensed financial institutions have a deep comprehension of their role in mitigating and addressing the risk of illicit activities in the UAE’s financial system”. Stringent Legal Measures: The UAE Courts are imposing strict penalties in the money laundering case. The Courts have passed heavy sentences such as imposing a fifteen-year imprisonment term and imposing a penalty equivalent to the misappropriated amount. There are instances wherein heavy fines of Aed 50 Million have been imposed. The extensive investigation exerted by the public prosecution in tracing financial crimes is a testament to the strong commitment of law enforcement agencies in the UAE. Tracing of fake accounts and layered accounts to cover up the misappropriated assets are being thoroughly investigated by the UAE authorities. The National Strategy to AML/CFT thus reflects the unrelenting commitment of UAE in its mission to ensure that it will not be viewed as a country in which criminals can carry out operations in money laundering or terrorism financing, nor can they route or transfer any proceedings that have originated through any criminal activity.
Ethical Hacking - CEH v11 Training Institute & Certification Exam center
Ethical Hacking - CEH v11(v11) Training & Certification Exam Overview If the idea of hacking as a career excites you, you will benefit greatly from completing this https://training.webasha.com/ethical-hacking-ceh-cyber-security-training-institute-certification-exam-center Vcourse from Webasha Technologies. You will find out how exactly a hacker might imagine before exploiting networks, servers, devices and the way to protect them as an ethical hacker. Learning the ethical Hacking course is a must for everybody as we live within the digital world filled with cyber-criminals. The prime purpose of Certified Ethical Hacker - CEH v11 credential is to reinforce Ethical Hacking as a unique and regulating profession. CEH v11 - Certified Ethical Hacker may be a skilled professional who may be a certified individual within the field of hacking. To master the hacking technologies, you'll need to become one, but an ethical hacker one. The EC- Council’s accredited course provides advanced hacking tools and techniques used by information security professionals alike to break into an organization. Prerequisites Have basic skills of computer & cyber security knowledge is recommended. Who is it for? Ethical Hackers System Administrators Network Administrators Network or Server Engineers Web managers Auditors Security Professionals <a href="https://training.webasha.com/ethical-hacking-ceh-cyber-security-training-institute-certification-exam-center" > Ethical Hacking CEH v11 training institute pune </a> <a href="https://training.webasha.com/ethical-hacking-ceh-cyber-security-training-institute-certification-exam-center" > Ethical Hacking CEH v11 training in pune </a> <a href="https://training.webasha.com/ethical-hacking-ceh-cyber-security-training-institute-certification-exam-center" > Ethical Hacking CEH v11 developer </a> <a href="https://training.webasha.com/ethical-hacking-ceh-cyber-security-training-institute-certification-exam-center" > Best Ethical Hacking CEH v11 training in pune </a> <a href="https://training.webasha.com/ethical-hacking-ceh-cyber-security-training-institute-certification-exam-center" > Ethical Hacking CEH v11 training center pune </a>
13 Top Ways to Protect Your Mobile App Against Cyber Attack
Mobile app development is a process that involves a lot of hard work and vulnerability. Developers have to account for potential cyber-attacks while the app is in the development stages to address the vulnerabilities adequately and secure their app against threats. Your fantasy sports mobile app is only as good as its security provided by a mobile app development agency. Here are some of the best ways to protect your fantasy sports app against cyber attacks during development: 1. Use a Secure Development Framework A secure development framework is a vital part of any mobile app development process, and it provides developers with guidelines and best practices for creating secure apps. The Android and iOS platforms have secure development frameworks for developers to follow and implement to secure their fantasy sports mobile app. Using a secure development framework can help you avoid many common security vulnerabilities. 2. Use a Secure Coding Standard A secure coding standard is another critical step in protecting fantasy sports app developers against cyber attacks. A secure coding standard will make it easier for you to implement a secure development framework correctly, while also helping to ensure that your code is as secure as possible. 3. Use Proper Authentication and Authorization Mechanisms Authentication and authorization mechanisms are important for any fantasy sports mobile app. These mechanisms ensure that only allowed users can access the app’s features and data. It would help if you used strong authentication and authorization mechanisms when developing your fantasy sports app to provide the best level of security. 4. Use a Trusted Mobile Operating System When developing your fantasy sports mobile app, using a trusted mobile operating system is important. By using a trusted mobile OS, you can ensure that your app will be safe from many common cyber attacks. The Android and iOS platforms are secure mobile operating systems. 5. Use Secure Network Protocols Secure network protocols are another crucial part of fantasy sports app security. These protocols help protect your fantasy sports app against cyber attacks that may occur during network communication. You should always use secure network protocols when developing fantasy sports mobile apps to ensure the security of your app. 6. Use Secure Storage Mechanisms Secure storage mechanisms are essential for protecting fantasy sports app data. You should use a secure storage mechanism to store all sensitive data in your fantasy sports app. This will help to keep your data safe from potential cyber-attacks. Proper secure storage mechanisms are an important part of fantasy sports app protection. 7. Always Restrict Network Access You should always restrict network access when developing fantasy sports mobile apps. This will help keep your app safe from potential cyber-attacks that may occur over the network. By restricting network access, you can help to reduce the risk of your fantasy sports app being compromised. 8. Use Secure Communication Protocols Secure communication protocols are another important part of fantasy sports app security. These protocols help protect your fantasy sports app against cyber attacks that may occur during communication with servers or other remote devices. It would be best if you always used secure communication protocols when developing fantasy sports mobile apps to help reduce the risk of your app being attacked. 9. Perform Security Testing Security testing is an important step in securing fantasy sports mobile apps. You should always perform security testing on your app to find and fix potential security vulnerabilities. By performing security testing, you can help to ensure the safety of your fantasy sports app from cyber attacks. 10. Use a Secure Development Framework A secure development framework is essential for fantasy sports mobile app security. A secure development framework can help you avoid many common security vulnerabilities, while also helping to increase the overall security of your fantasy sports app. 11. Keep Your Development Environment Up-to-Date Keeping your development environment updated is another important part of fantasy sports app security. By keeping your fantasy sports app development services environment up to date, you can keep the operating system and other software in your fantasy sports mobile app development environment up to date and patched. This can help reduce the risk of your fantasy sports app being compromised by cyber attacks. 12. Always Follow Security Guidelines Developing fantasy sports mobile apps requires following established security guidelines. You should always follow security guidelines when developing fantasy sports mobile apps to help ensure the security of your fantasy sports app. Following established security guidelines can help you avoid many common cyber-attacks while increasing the overall security of your fantasy sports mobile app. 13. Perform Static Code Analysis of Fantasy Sports Apps Performing static code analysis on fantasy sports apps is essential to find and fix potential security vulnerabilities. Static code analysis is reviewing fantasy sports app source code for security vulnerabilities. By performing static code analysis on fantasy sports mobile apps, you can help to make your fantasy sports app more secure. Did we miss something in this article? Please share with us in the comment section below!
Hire vetted quality DevOps developers within 48 Hours | Optymize
Fortune 500 companies and funded startups pick Optymize’s DevOps developers to scale up their teams quickly and to achieve their project deadlines. Extend your technology team and select the top 5% DevOps developers on contract basis. Optymize is a marketplace for top DevOps developers, programmers, consultants pre-vetted by our experts and our Talent Cloud Solution. Hire Developers Now 100% risk free 2 weeks trial. Click on: https://optymize.io/hire-devops-engineers/ Why choose DevOps for your project? DevOps is the combination of cultural philosophies, practices, and tools that increases an organization’s ability to deliver applications and services at high velocity. It removes the organization’s traditional software development and management system by evolving and improving products at a faster pace. This speed enables organizations to serve their customers in a better way and compete with others more effectively in the market. Why DevOps matters? Software and the Internet have transformed the world and its industries, from shopping to entertainment to banking. Companies interact with their customers through software. In today’s world, companies must transform how they build and deliver software to meet the high demands. DevOps Approach is based on: –. Continuous Integration: It is a software development that involves continuous integration of code into the central repository –. Continuous delivery: In this process of software development code changes are automatically built, tested, and prepared for a release to production. –. Microservices: It is a design approach to building a single application as a set of small services. –. Infrastructure as code: In this practice, infrastructure is provisioned and managed by using code and software development techniques such as version control and continuous integration. –. Communication and collaboration: it is one of the key approaches of DevOps. Benefits of DevOps –. Speed: Moving at high speed will help to adapt to customer query, understand the changing market better, and grow more efficiently with productive results. –. Rapid Delivery: Frequent release of new features and bug fixing will make the customer respond in a positive way which will help in innovation of the product. –. Reliability: Delivering quality updates will ensure positive reviews from end users keeping the reliability factor intact. –. Security: Automated compliance policies, configuration management technique will preserve security. –. Scale: Automation and consistency help you manage complex or changing systems efficiently and with reduced risk. –. Improved collaboration: Combine workflows of developers and operations team reduces inefficiencies and saves time.
Is it possible for foreign investors to have a big loan?
The United Arab Emirates has consistently sought to develop the UAE into a pro-business region and to have the best of facilities and policies that encourage foreign direct investments. The UAE has progressed in leaps and bounds and has established itself on the global page. It no longer identifies itself as an economy that is dependent on oil and instead has developed a well-diversified economy. The establishment of the Dubai International Financial Centre Courts system (DIFC), Dubai International Arbitration Centre (DIAC) and the Abu Dhabi Commercial Conciliation & Arbitration Centre (ADDCCAC), allowing for adjudication in English, constitute an alternate legal mechanism other than the UAE local courts. The UAE has also developed and offered almost 40 strategic economic zones or free trade zones that allow foreign investors to own and establish a company or branch of a foreign company. Recently, the UAE government issues a landmark law that now allows foreign investors to hold 100 % ownership in a mainland UAE company without mandatorily appointing a local sponsor with 51% shareholding. Certain strategic business sectors would still remain excluded depending on the decision of each emirate. The UAE offers a robust banking infrastructure, and banks often provide loans for foreign investors. There are specific banks that cater to the requirements of small and medium enterprises and issue bank loans. The interest percentage, collateral and repayment term differ amongst each. Business entities with years of successful operations and good credit history to showcase, have a higher chance of securing bigger loan amounts. The banks also carefully vet and process the capabilities of the company, its management structure, its turnover and collateral as deciding factors. Other critical elements vetted by banks could include:  - Cash flow: the cash flow obtained by the company through its daily operation is a key component vetted by the banks and is considered as a prime indicator of the financial stability of the company. - Professional know-how: A lack of experience in the said industry of business can raise a concern to the banks, and thus banks usually thoroughly vet the level of experience gained in the intended stream of trade or business. - Business plan: Through its business plan, an enterprise can showcase its clear vision for its operation and future expansion. Banks often vet the business plan of a company to see a realistic expectation for the success of the business. The UAE is extremely focused on effecting changes in the legal regime and economy that ensures that foreign investors continue to profit from all that UAE has to offer.Alternate funding options can also be sought by foreign investors, especially by entrepreneurs, which include funding options in the form of venture capital and angel investors. These are slowly becoming extremely popular and viable financing options in the UAE. 
How to Hire Junior Developers Remotely Within 48 Hours | Optymize
In today’s world, every software company is looking for developers who will bring quality results for the team. Likewise, many start-ups are wanting to hire junior developers to assist the senior developers and increase the pace of the production. But hiring a junior developer is not easy. First of all you have to have the concise idea of a Junior Developer. If you are in need of hiring junior developers then you should have the idea of roles and responsibilities, list of Junior developer’s roles, knowledge on. A new start-up is launching every other day. Who do you think these companies hunt in the endeavour to reach the peak? They hire junior developers. Because they are fresh out of college, with new ideas to design, build and implement. And if you hire one junior developer with passion, he might be a real booster for your company. It is one of the reasons why you should hire the most eligible and competent candidate. It will not only increase your ROI but also the environment of your tech team. To hire junior developers is a crucial step. But hiring junior developers is a daunting task. It gets a bit tricky from the beginning. This blog will take you through all the tips and tricks related to hiring junior developers for your company. Things to look out for before you hire junior developers The recruiting process is time as well as resource-consuming. This is why there are some basic questions that you need to ask yourself before you set your journey to hire junior developers. It is fine if you are a big company and need to hire a junior developer for assistance. But what about start-ups wanting to hire junior developers? The first question comes to this, why does our company need to hire a junior developer? This is the basic question and you should have the answer ready with you. Otherwise there’s no use going further. What will be the contributions of this junior developer for this company? This junior developer will practically learn software development procedures and help to increase the ROI in the long run. A quick learner and passionate junior developer are what every start-up needs these days. What best skills can a junior developer possess? The question clarifies the task you will be handing over to this junior developer. If you want to hire a front-end junior developer then you would look for skills such as CSS, JavaScript, PHP and a little bit of database management. These are what we also called Hard Skills. A quick learner, better communicator, well presenter, good time manager is what we call soft skills. And as a recruiting officer, you have all the right to ask about both soft and hard skills. Some other deeper questions are such as: 1. What kind of projects will be assigned to this junior developer? 2. What roles and responsibilities will this new junior developer have to follow? The other easier option is to talk with the existing team and receive feedback if the team needs a junior developer. If your team is failing to achieve the tasks and need some assistance, then that might be the time you need a junior developer in the project. Talking with the team will clear such things and you will have a straight vision whether to hire junior developers or not. Two Different Ways to Hire Junior Developers In this competitive job market, you can still hire junior developers but you will have two ways: Hire an Agency There’s no doubt that hiring an agency for a junior developer will be costly. But it will be time efficient. On the other hand, hiring junior developers in-house is costlier as well as time consuming. The quick way to hire a remote junior developer is by contacting an agency. After you contact them to hire a junior software developer, they will want your full requirements such as Junior developers’ roles, soft skills, hard skills, availability etc. Then the agency will need some time to prepare the CV according to your requirements of junior software developer or junior web developer or other junior developers by sorting the CVs . Then they will send you the CV for you to decide. After you look through all the CVs of those junior developers and choose your required junior developers, there would be an introduction meeting to formalize the done deal. In-House Hiring As I mentioned, in-house hiring is costlier and time-consuming. But in-house hiring can be effective. First of all, you have to have faith on the recruiting officer that he or she will bring a quality candidate for the team. Your hiring officers should be well-experienced and should have the knack to decide if the candidate answering the interview questions is suitable or not. A better recruiting officer will change the methods of in-house hiring using some clever and efficient methods. Now let’s discuss the methods of in-house hiring. Inbound and Outbound Methods to Hire Junior Developers 1. Inbound Method to Hire Junior Developers In simple way, Inbound Method is where the developers find you and reach you for a job at your company. To achieve this level, the company needs to establish a strong presence across the web. Everyone searches job sites and constantly scrolls through them. Everyone is trying to upgrade. Every one of us are constantly looking for better opportunities. Likewise, if you want to hire junior developers then it is recommended you make a strong presence across social media as well. Some of the inbound methods are explained below, you can scan through it and implement the one that matches your requirements. 1. Job Postings on Job Portals Before you begin posting the job, the following are the crucial points that you need to take care of. · A better described JD that includes roles, responsibilities and salary information. · Mention the technologies the junior developer has to work on. · Explain the benefits of employment at the company · You may include a “must have” and “nice to have” section as per your need · Sticking to the crucial details is must— just communicate the truth via JD. · Lastly, post the updated JD based on feedback or questions during the earlier interviews. 2. Work on Website’s Career Page No one visits a website with the intent of scrolling. Everyone is visiting the web because they are in need of information. From the perspective of a job seeking developer, if your company website doesn’t have any career page, then the developer will probably never apply. It’s better to maintain the career page with updated job vacancies. 3. Social Media LinkedIn, is the name that pops in the head of many when talking about social media to post or get a job. But that’s not the end. Twitter is also a great medium to find well-talented junior developers. Facebook groups are also a crucial way to find talents. 4. Ad Campaigns Ad campaigns are another method to consider for your inbound recruitment. But this task is costly and if not effective enough then can waste other resources as well. But if one uses ads in synergy with different operations then it might lead to a better result. Outbound Methods to Hire Junior Developers This method is the one where you find viable candidates and attract them to apply for a job at your company. Outbound recruitment is a difficult task, but there are tried-and-tested strategies for persuading developers to your side, from traditional LinkedIn messages to more innovative methods like workshops and hackathons. 6 Steps to Hire Junior Developers 1. Job Offers It’s mandatory to let everyone know that you are looking to hire junior developers. Prepare a job description that contains the concise information you want your future junior developer to know such as Hiring junior developers, roles, time, benefits as well as salary. You can use both inbound and outbound methods where some junior developers will look for you after they see your ads or you go and look for them. 2. CV Collection As the candidates begin to apply, you will begin to receive CVs. Gather as many CVs as you want. For that, you have to make top-notch promotion of your brand using JDs, posts etc. 3. Screening In this process go over the CVs, look carefully through their background, skills, and keep the ones that ticks all boxes of requirements. Skills, requirements, qualifications, experiences, these are the boxes that could be ticked after going through a CV. 4. The HR Interview The HRs of a company usually get rid of the candidates who are not clearly fit for the job. Some candidates may show a well-made CV but when it comes to communication and other soft skills then the candidate doesn’t stand a chance. Talking face-to-face narrows down all the expectations from the candidate. 5. The Technical Interview This step is to ensure the technical abilities of the candidate is up to the mark. Evaluating the skills and competencies of the candidate is the ultimate way of finding top talents across the world. 6. Final Call The interview process comes to an end, the time for final call begins. If the data suggests that the candidate will be suitable then it’s better to not drag the process. After this point it will eventually be clear enough about whom to hire. This is the final call if you want to send an offer letter or a rejection email. Top Reasons for Not to Hire Junior Developers With These Qualities There are many reasons to not hire junior developers. We might weigh these reasons with our theories but the only thing remaining is identifying the better candidate for the job. The recruitment process clarifies all these confusions of selecting the top junior developers. Here are the top three reasons that are red flags while hiring junior developers for your company. · Absence of Soft Skills · More Salary Expectation · Language Barrier During Communication The Best Way to Hire Junior Developers Within 48 Hours This blog talks about many things, from methods of advertisement for attracting and hiring junior developers to the qualities of a junior developer. But no matter what, hiring a junior developer on your own will cost resources such as money and time. The easiest method is hiring an agency that understands your needs and requirements well and delivers the final product. Optymize is such an agency with a network of remote freelance developers from around the world. Optymize has top-quality vetted candidates from many techs stack who are ready to work for you within 48 hours if the initial meetings between you and optymize is all sorted. Visit Optymize and learn more about how to hire junior developers within 48 hours.
Best NADRA Card Renewal Services Provided by NADRA Card UK
NCC is an abbreviation for NADRA Card Center, which is our website that operates both online and in-person to provide all of the best services to Pakistanis who live overseas for a variety of reasons. NADRA Card UK is a professional website that provides superior documentation services and ensures fast delivery to your doorstep. You can select the executive service if you require your RENEWAL NADRA CARD within 7 to 10 days. Under typical circumstances, NADRA ID Card takes a month. Our delivery service is the best of all; we deliver your documents as soon as possible, reducing your anxiety and increasing your sense of security. To reassure them that we are trying our best, long sections and explanations are unnecessary. We believe in them because actions speak louder than long chapters and explanations. You can get these services at NADRA Card Center: • NICOP Modification • Pakistani Passport Renewal • FRC (Family Relation Certificate) • NICOP Card for the first time • POC First Time • POC Renewal • POC Modification • NADRA Card Renewal • NADRA Card Our main purpose is to provide Pakistanis residing abroad with the best NADRA ID Card services possible. You will require a NICOP Card if you live in the United Kingdom, which is why we are here to help you in any way we can. Simply visit our website; we will be happy to assist you with your worries. Hassle-free services. The NADRA Card Center is fantastic in swiftly and efficiently resolving all of your problems. Our goal is to achieve new heights by earning your trust, therefore please visit the NADRA Card Center online or come by our office to see us. We will aid you in overcoming adversity by giving the finest of our services, which is our primary goal. Don't worry; we're here to help you with your identity issues in a timely and effective manner. You can now get your National ID number in the blink of an eye if you do business with us. When you will be notified about the progress of your application? You will be notified when: Your NADRA application has been submitted Your NADRA Card UK is dispatched t for printing and approved, The NADRA card has been sent.
How to Deal with Signature Forgery?
Forgery can be defined as the act of forging a copy or imitation of a document, signature, banknote, or work of art etc. To prove forgery, the burden of proof is always on the claimant, and the respondent may deny the charges. However, if the charges are proven to be true, then the individual may face charges for misrepresentation and fraud. Article 216 of the UAE penal code defines forgery as: "The forgery of a written instrument is to alter its reality in one of the manners described hereinbelow, so as to cause prejudice, with the intention of substituting the false for the genuine instrument." The seven methods stated to be considered as committing the crime of forgery are as follows: 1. "To alter a genuine instrument, whether by adding, or removing or changing any of its written parts, numbers, marks or pictures. 2. To falsely sign or place a forged seal or to alter a genuine signature, seal or imprint. 3. To obtain by surprise or by fraud the signature, seal or imprint of a person who ignores the contents of the instrument or who has not validly given his consent thereon. 4. To make falsely or imitate an instrument and attribute it to another person. 5. To fill a blank paper which is signed, sealed or imprinted, without the approval of the person who has signed, sealed or imprinted it. 6. To assume the name of another person or to substitute it in a document that has been prepared specifically to prove the identity of such other person. 7. A material alteration of writing with a deceitful and fraudulent intent, preventing, therefore, the genuine intent of the instrument from being achieved." Further, Article 6 of the Federal Decree-Law no. 5 of 2012 on combatting cybercrimes states the punishment of forging an electronic document as "Shall be punished by temporary imprisonment and a fine not less than one hundred and fifty thousand dirhams and not in excess of seven hundred and fifty thousand dirhams whoever commits forgery of any electronic document of the federal or local government or authorities or federal or local public establishments. The punishment shall be both imprisonment and a fine not less than one hundred thousand dirhams and not in excess of three hundred thousand dirhams or either of these two penalties if the forged documents belongs to an authority other than those mentioned in paragraph one of this Article. Shall be punished by the same penalty decided for the crime of forgery, as the case may be, whoever uses this forged electronic document with his knowledge that the document is forged. In a crime of forgery, the intention to commit forgery or to deceive is most important and, in the absence of such intent, the crime may not be constituted. For example, an individual may simply copy the work of another with the intention to commit forgery or to deceive anyone. In the absence of actual intent, the crime may not be proven. It is critical that expert legal opinion is obtained to ensure that your rights are protected and that you obtain the most accurate legal advice as per the unique circumstances of your case.
A Guide for Cyber Security Job | Optymize
Cyber Security, IT security, computer security, or any other synonym refers to a field of study that focuses on protecting computer devices, systems, and networks from threats. These threats can range from information leaks or loss, damages to hardware and/or software, ransoming, etc. and as these threats continue to grow, so too do cyber security jobs. Prerequisites for Cyber Security Jobs The prerequisites for Cyber security jobs vary in specificity depending upon the role in question. As such, listed below are the prerequisites for Cyber security jobs at the beginner level. · A bachelor’s degree in computer science, IT, or a similar field. · Familiarity with the three primary operating systems: Windows, Unix, and Linux. · Knowledge of programming skills, cloud computing, SaaS, etc. · Specific knowledge in regards to computer security, ethical hacking, network testing, etc. along with certifications for the same. The Common Cyber Security Jobs for Beginners are The workings of cybersecurity are constantly evolving with new threats. As such, for anyone working in cybersecurity, they must be willing to work in a field that requires constant updates. Outside of this, there are some roles that are available at various Cybersecurity ranks: 1. Security Analyst · They are responsible for analysing and and assessing vulnerabilities in computer infrastructure while deploying means and recommending solutions to fix these vulnerabilities. Outside of this, they investigate security incidents to assess damages and assist in recovery. Outside of creation and implementation of such security solutions, they also work in management and testing for compliance of security policies and procedures. 2. Security Engineer · Security engineers are responsible for security monitoring and analysis to detect any security incident and mount the appropriate response. They are also responsible for updates through investigating and utilising new means, in terms of methodologies and technologies in order to enhance security capabilities while implementing any possible improvements. 3. Security Architect · The security architects are responsible for building the security systems. As such, if such a task is handed over to a team, a security architect mau head the team. There are also specialists or consultants for Cyber security jobs. The ones who hold these types of Cyber security jobs are those who possess several years of experience and/or specialised knowledge on a particular topic. The other types of Cyber security jobs are dependent on the geography as different regions have different requirements and different companies vary in type and size that affects the type and number of available Cyber security jobs. These Cyber security jobs include administerial, security officers and protection officers. Common Threats to Find in Cyber Security Jobs Among Cyber security jobs, there are a multitude of cybersecurity threats that the employees there have to face. Some of the common types of threats and vulnerabilities that they have to face are: 1. Backdoors · Backdoors are the general term that is used to refer to any method of bypassing the means of authentication or similar security methods. Such backdoors may exist in a computer system or algorithm and they may be created as a part of the original design or due to failure in design and development. Whether they are intentionally created to allow for legitimate access or through malicious intent, they create a vulnerability in the system. The detection of backdoors requires access to the source code and/or intimate knowledge of the computer OS. 2. DOS (Denial of System) Attacks · The denial of system attacks is designed to make resources in a machine or network unavailable to the authentic users. The attacks can be targeted to an individual or all users by spamming wrong passwords, locking the account or overloading the machine or network’s capabilities, blocking all users respectively. Such attacks generally take place from multiple attacks as the rarer attacks from a single IP address are easily blocked. 3. Direct Access Attacks · These refer to attacks where an unauthorised user gains physical access to a computer. This can lead to the attacker copying data, compromising security by installing vulnerabilities or otherwise damaging the system. This can be prevented through techniques like disk encryption and trusted platform modules. 4. Phishing · This is a form of social engineering where attackers deceive the actual users to acquire their sensitive information. They go through with this by messaging the users into entering and giving away their sensitive personal information. 5. Spoofing · This refers to the act of pretending to be an authorised user by using falsified data to gain unauthorised data. Some types of spoofing such as email spoofing are akin to phishing, whereas others such as IP address, MACs and biometric spoofing involve hiding the respective ID data. The Countermeasures Used in Cyber Security Jobs Previously, the various threats and vulnerabilities that can be found in Cyber security jobs have been discussed. However, countermeasures exist for dealing with them and though they vary depending upon the types of Cyber security jobs available, the classifications are standard. The countermeasures themselves can refer to specific procedures, hardware or software that are used to tackle vulnerabilities and threats by discovering and eliminating them while reducing the damage they can cause. The common countermeasures that can be found in various Cyber security jobs include: Security by Design: This involves designing the software’s from the ground up with security in mind. As such, they often include multiple features that are included with security in mind. These include: The Principle of Least Privilege: It is a means of security through compartmentalisation. This involves ensuring that the various components and/or users only have access to the essential data or privilege that they need to function. This ensures that any attacker that manages to breach any of the components would only have limited access, being unable to access any more of the system. Defence in Depth: This is similar to the previous feature, but rather than relying on compartmentalising the data to create multiple barriers, instead, the defences are layered to cover the personnel, technical, physical and procedural aspects of security. Digital fail safes allow for creating fail secure methods to ensure that any failure can result in minimising the damage taken in case of failure. Greater transparency and communication in regards to disclosure of all vulnerabilities and audit trails are useful examples. The former allows for shortening the window of vulnerability and the list of possible causes of breach in case of attacks. The latter is useful for investigation for breaches as it allows for tracking the trails and preventing the attackers from covering their trails. Security Architecture: The IT security architecture can be defined how the security controls are positioned, and how they relate to the overall information technology architecture. This ensures that the various attributes necessary for security such as confidentiality and integrity are met. The key features for such an architecture include the standardisation of the controls, using risk assessment to determine controls and on figuring out the dependencies and relationships between the different components. Vulnerability Management and Reduction: They involve identifying and reducing the possible effects for any vulnerabilities discovered. Outside of scanning for standard vulnerabilities such as open ports, insecure software configurations and other problems, other tasks include running regular updates and running regular penetration tests. Common Terms for Cyber Security Jobs The field of cybersecurity is immensely broad and constantly adapting with every new threat. As such, to those in the entry level, they are expected to already know about many technical terms and definitions in comparison to other entry level roles. Some of the examples of unique terms in Cyber security jobs include: Automated Theorem Proving: It is a subfield of mathematical logic that deals with proving mathematical theorems through computer programs. This differs from proof verification, which involves checking whether an already existing proof is valid or not. It is one of the techniques implemented in the “security by design” countermeasures to prove the correctness of crucial software subsystems. Chain of Trust: It is a means of ensuring that only trusted software’s and hardware’s are used without compromises on flexibility. This is used in computer security to verify digital certificates. Endpoint Security: It refers to an approach of protecting computers where the client devices are wirelessly linked. As such connection points are obvious weak points to security threats, so endpoint security focuses on making sure that such devices follow at least the minimum level of compliance to security threats. Such protections have advanced from antivirus software’s to include means for threat detection, investigation and response to DLP (data leak protection). Logic, Time and Fork Bombs: Logic bombs are code segments that when inserted into a software system and lie dormant with a certain condition is met. When the conditions are right, it will set off the software’s malicious function. Logic bombs form components of viruses and worms or are malwares in themselves. If such conditions are a specific date and/or time, they bear similarities with time bombs. The primary difference between the two being that time-based conditions may be used as a failsafe by logic bombs as a failsafe trigger whereas time bombs use them as an activation/deactivation trigger. Fork bombs are similar to the above two, requiring a trigger but lack a deployed package. Instead, they replicate endlessly, using up a computer’s resources. Firewalls: Firewalls are a network security system that monitors traffic between trusted and untrusted networks based on some pre-set security rules. They are generally utilised as a barrier between localised networks and the internet. Air Gapping: This is a network security measure that is used to ensure a computer network is physically isolated from unsecured networks. This involves the air gapped computer or network having no network interfaces connected to outside networks. Applications for Cyber Security and Cyber Security Jobs The necessity of cyber security has seen it playing a role or be applied to every possible application or field in general that uses computer devices, networks, or programs. The primary ones include: Financial Systems: Various components of the modern financial systems have at least on one point been attacked, sometimes successfully in the past. The most common targets are bank accounts that are easily targeted by phishing scams and larger scale attacks including those on stock exchanges and commercial sites. Outside of this, there attacks that require physical access such as tampering with ATMs are also considered as a form of financial system attacks. As many of these systems require internet access to function, air gapping them is not a valid or practical approach. Moreover, due to financial incentives, this is a common target as it attracts more than just typical vandals among the hacker community. As such, people in Cyber security jobs who work in financial security often have to be knowledgeable in regards to firewalls as well as spreading common precautionary steps among users to prevent phishing attacks. Industries: Various industries, especially energy companies have been the victims of cyber security attacks. This is an especially soft target as they are the foundations of modern infrastructure so crippling the energy sector can cripple the entire infrastructure, ranging from transport and other industries to financial and corporate sectors. Air gapping the localised networks has often been seen as a practical approach to ensure security but certain attractions such as Stuxnet worm can still be considered vulnerable. As Schyberg security jobs in this sector have to know more than just air gapping procedures and expect continuous attacks on their field, while being aware of the fact that a failure on their part can cause a domino effect, crippling several other sectors. Transport: The transportation sector has seen recent developments with the growth of globalisation that have made interconnectivity necessary while making them vulnerable to digital sectors. Long range transportation of people and cargo through aviation and sea travel are especially vulnerable to such attacks due to the necessity of GPS in navigation and in coordination for heavy traffic ports and airports. Even rail transport is vulnerable during shunting and road transport in urban areas for traffic control systems. However, the biggest threat to the transportation sector is through indirect attacks when successful energy attacks can ground the transportation of a country, regardless of the functioning of the other mentioned systems. Corporate: The corporate sector overlaps but not entirely with attacks on the financial sector. Attacks here are targeted more towards obtaining data from companies and/or sabotage their working rather than direct financial attacks. Many corporations store user data on their own private servers, often containing sensitive data such as bank account details. This makes them a tempting target for financially incentivised hackers and industrial espionage hackers often target corporate data, focusing instead on patents and other similar data. Outside of this, many such corporations are targets of vandalism or ransomware attacks by hacktivists and cyber-attacks alike. Government: The various government networks have often been targeted by hacktivists and various foreign powers. Depending on the level of control that the government has on a country’s other sectors, so too can the severity of a successful attack. Cyber security jobs in this region are unfortunately not as highly desired as they are often poorly paid in comparison to the private sector and the technology that they have to work with is often severely out of date. This is due to inertia, lack of compatibility with modern technology and conversion to modern levels of infrastructure requiring more than available funding as well as expertise in both the archaic and modern technology, which is very rare. Consumer: The consumer sector has also been a target of cybersecurity attacks. Outside of the above-mentioned regions of overlapping targets, such as the personal bank accounts, they also include the various personal devices such as smartphones and laptops. They are vulnerable not only to the data that they contain, but also additional built-in tools that include the cameras, microphones, GPS receivers and accelerometers that can be used as a means of tracking a person without their knowledge or consent. They can also target home automation systems such as the Nest thermostat. Conclusion Cyber security is nothing new. As long as there have been threats, people trying to exploit computer systems and networks, there have been people trying to find countermeasures against them. The first computer bug was a literal bug that shorted out a vacuum tube. Now thanks to the transistor, it has been reduced to a metaphor. The first computer worm released in 1971 for the benign purpose of deterring piracy opened the pandora’s box of digital pandemics. However, the first counter to it rose within a year and from then on, it has been nothing short of an arms race. The ones who work today in cyber security jobs find themselves serving in digital environments as the vanguard on the front lines of war or as a peacekeeping force, always remaining vigilant against potential threats. The exceptional among them may even work behind enemy lines but regardless of the metaphor used, as long as there are threats, cyber security and cyber security jobs will remain relevant for the foreseeable future.
What will be the punishment for fake claims in court?
Submitting fake claims in the UAE can be subject to the provisions of the ‘false accusations’ under the UAE Penal Code. In this article, we will endeavour to discuss the concept of making fake claims or accusations under UAE law and it’s resultant punishments. The federal law no. 3 of 1987 and its amendments (the UAE Civil Code) defines the act of providing false reports to judicial or administrative authorities in the UAE as a punishable offence. The punishment can include imprisonment as well as fines. The significant factor checked by the UAE courts in false accusation crimes includes the aspect of ‘bad faith’. In addition, if a false accusation leads to another person being convicted, then the same penalty shall be applied to the fabricator. Article 276, states: Detention, a fine, or one of these two penalties shall be imposed upon any one who, in bad faith, gives a false report to judicial or administrative authorities concerning commission by a person of an act or omission which entails a criminal punishment or administrative disciplinary action, even if no criminal or disciplinary action follows, as well as anyone who, contrary to the truth, fabricates material evidences on the commission of a crime by a person, or caused legal proceedings to be taken against a person, knowing of his innocence. Detention or a fine shall apply to both cases if the fabricated crime is a felony; if the fabrication leads to a criminal judgment, the, fabricator shall be punished by the same penalty. Similarly, if a fake claim is based on forged documents, it invites punishments and penalties under forgery. Forgery is defined under the UAE laws as ‘an act that alters the reality of a written instrument in a manner so as to cause prejudice and with the intention of substituting the false alteration for the genuine document’. The punishment for forgery includes imprisonment for up to 10 years and fines. Article 216 of the UAE penal code states seven methods that are considered as committing the crime of forgery, and they include: * "To alter a genuine instrument, whether by adding, or removing or changing any of its written parts, numbers, marks or pictures. * To falsely sign or place a forged seal, or to alter a genuine signature, seal or imprint. * To obtain by surprise or by fraud the signature, seal or imprint of a person who ignores the contents of the instrument or who has not validly given his consent thereon. * To make falsely or imitate an instrument and attribute it to another person. * To fill a blank paper which is signed, sealed or imprinted, without the approval of the person who has signed, sealed or imprinted it. * To assume the name of another person or to substitute it in a document which has been prepared specifically to prove the identity of such other person. * A material alteration of writing with a deceitful and fraudulent intent, preventing therefore the genuine intent of the instrument from being achieved." Raising a fake claim in the UAE is treated as a felony in most instances and may invite punishments for more than one offence, as we discussed above. The UAE heavily relies on the good faith principle, and the legal requisite remains that any report of submission provided to the judicial authorities in the UAE should be based on good faith.