When I first started lifting weights -- painful, hard calluses began to develop on my hands. At first, I wanted to get rid of them because I thought they were unattractive. However, over time, I learned to love my hand calluses. My calluses represented strength, hard-work, and part of being human.
"The skin on the palm of your hands, right below the fingers will thicken and harden as a result of training to form a layer of armor to protect your hands from tears and blisters" (Fitocracy)
It's basically a way of your body trying to protect your hands while lifting weights that cause friction. There are a few ways you can prevent or even reduce hand calluses from the result of lifting weights.
Weight Lifting Gloves
PROS: Weightlifting gloves absorb sweat and help secure your grip.
CONS : They can get uncomfortable. There's also the argument that hand calluses provide a better grip than gloves.
For me personally, I never liked using weight lifting gloves. But since I've already built calluses, I don't feel the need for gloves.
PROS: Chalk can also absorb sweat, and can be seen as a cheaper alternative. It reduces pain from calluses. Reduces friction.
CONS: It's messy and gets on everything. You need to make sure to wipe it off weights after use. Also, most commercial gyms band using chalk. It's also less effective against calluses.
I've used chalk a couple of times before, but I somehow cannot get comfortable with it. For a long time, I wasn't using chalk. But as I started lifting heavier weights, especially for deadlifts, I found if very difficult to maintain a good grip with sweaty hands. I had to use chalk, since I opted out with weightlifting gloves.
Sometimes, no matter how careful you are to prevent calluses, they might just come, anyway. If you have gone past the point of no return, and you already have hand calluses from weightlifting, there is a way to take care of them. When you first start out, calluses can be painful, but over time, they just become a second skin on your hands.
What You Can Do:
1) You can use a stone to scrub your calluses -- you've probably seen these before if you have ever gotten a pedicure. Same approach. You'll want to soak your calluses and periodically clean the stone. If it's too painful, you'll want to stop.
I prefer hand calluses along with using chalk.